Bottled water business flourishes as demand for clean drinking water increases

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Bottled water business flourishes as demand for clean drinking water increases

A study shows that more than 5 million people to die each year due to waste related with increasing population and rapid urbanization, access to safe drinking water in Pakistan is on the decline. People living in urban cities are becoming more aware of the contamination of drinking water and this has resulted in more sales of bottled water. Government water boards have failed to deliver clean drinking water to the masses. The demand for bottled waters of various brands has increased in the past few years. Four bottled water plants have been set up in a 2 KM area of Jehangir Road, Karachi which indicates the increase in demand.Pakistan comes in at the 80th place among 122 countries in drinking water quality according to World Health Organization (WHO). Majority of the water supply is contaminated with arsenic and various bacteria. Increasing number of people is therefore preferred to drink bottle water and choose a healthier lifestyle.
According to Nestle Pakistan, per capita bottle water consumption in Pakistan is five litters which are much higher as compared to the per capita consumption in Bangladesh which is 3 litters and India at 11 litters.
In Pakistan, 130 local brands are registered apart from three international brands, Aquafina (PepsiCo), Kinley (Coca-Cola) and Nestle Pure Life.
About 179 out of 300 registered plants have shut down as they did not meeting the standards set by PSQCA (Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority) which provides room for small bottled water suppliers to meet the consumers demand.

Cost for Bottle Water Produce
There is a major opportunity for small entrepreneurs to invest in the business of bottle water. It takes Rs 500,000 to set up a bottled water plant. The plant can last for 10 years.
About 25 paisa is the cost of producing one liter of bottled water. This is a very small cost as estimated that more than 5 million people die each year due to waste related. and the as generated daily is between Rs 20,000 to Rs 42,000.
These small businessmen need is a reverse osmosis filtration plant and packaging material to sell the water directly to the consumers via home delivery. This trend is catching on in Karachi and other parts of the country.
With the increase of bottling water demand, more plants are being set up which gives job opportunity to the youth. So in other words increase in the consumption of bottled water is decreasing unemployment in Pakistan.
PSQCA is aiming to restrict the sale of substandard water. No object certificate (NOC) is needed by the purification plant to operate which is given by PSQCA.
Water plants are not allowed to be set up in residential areas and those that are already functioning are given one year to shift to industrial or commercial areas, said the PSQCA DG.

History
Some of the more common types of bottle water are:
n Artesian water, this is water that originates from a confined aquifer that has been tapped and in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.
n Fluoridated, this type of water contains added fluoride. This category includes water classified as “For Infants” or Nursery.
n Groundwater, this type of water is from an underground source that is under a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.
n Mineral water, water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds. It comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or spring, and originates from a geologically and physically protected underground water source. No minerals may be added to this water.
n Purified water, this type of water has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may also be referred to as demineralized water.
n Sparkling water, contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and replenished after treatment.
n Spring water, this type of water comes from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the Earth’s surface.Sterile water, this type of water meets sterilization requirements, for example, those specified under “sterility tests” in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
n Well water, this water is taken from a hole tapping, etc. This hole may be bored, drilled, or otherwise constructed in the ground.

Product Forms
The Beverage Marketing Corporation defines the bottle water market segment as retail PET, retail bulk, home and office delivery, vending, domestic sparkling and imports, but excluding flavored and enhanced water.

Purified water vending machines
Some of the more common types of bottled water are:
n Artesian water, this water originates from a confined aquifer that has been tapped and in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.
n Fluoridated, this type of water contains added fluoride. This category includes water classified as for Infants or Nursery.
n Groundwater, this type of water is from an underground source that is under a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.
n Mineral water, water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds. It comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or spring, and originates from a geologically and physically protected underground water source. No minerals may be added to this water.
n Purified water, this type of water has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may also be referred to as “demineralized water”.
n Sparkling water, Sparkling water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and replenished after treatment.
n Spring water, this type of water comes from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the Earth’s surface.
n Sterile water, this type of water meets sterilization requirements, for example, those specified under “sterility tests” in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
n Well water, well water is taken from a hole tapping, etc. This hole may be bored, drilled, or otherwise constructed in the ground.

Product Forms
The Beverage Marketing Corporation defines the bottled water market segment as retail PET, retail bulk, home and office delivery, vending, domestic sparkling and imports”, but excluding “flavored and enhanced water.”

Purified water vending machines
A number of cities and companies worldwide have vending machines that dispense purified water into customer’s own containers. All dispensers filter the location’s tap water. In North America, these machines are typically located outside of supermarkets.
Of all the water vending companies, Glacier Water is the largest. Since its inception in 1983, Glacier Water has experienced significant growth in machine placements.
This is a list of bottled water brands. Bottled water is drinking water, e.g., well water, distilled water, mineral water, or spring water packaged in plastic or glass water bottles. Bottle water may be carbonated or not. Sizes range from small single serving bottles to large carboys for water coolers.
Although vessels to bottle and transport water were part of the earliest human civilizations, bottling water began in the United Kingdom with the first water bottling at the Holy Well in 1621.The demand for bottled water was fueled in large part by the resurgence in spa-going and water therapy among Europeans and American colonists in the 17th and 18th centuries. The first commercially distributed water in America was bottled and sold by Jackson’s Spa in Boston in 1767. Early drinkers of bottled spa waters believed that the water at these mineral springs had therapeutic properties and that bathing in or drinking the water could help treat many common ailments.
The popularity of bottled mineral waters quickly led to a market for imitation products. Carbonated waters developed as means for approximating the natural effervescence of spring bottled water, and in 1809 Joseph Hawkins was issued the first US patent for imitation mineral water. As technological innovation in nineteenth century lowered the cost of making glass and improved production speed for bottling, bottled water was able to be produced on a larger scale and the beverage grew in popularity. Bottled water was seen by many as a safer alternative to 19th century municipal water supplies that could be contaminated with pathogens like cholera and typhoid. By the middle of the century, one of America’s most popular bottlers, Saratoga Springs, was producing more than 7 million bottles of water annually.
In the United States, the popularity of bottled water declined in the early 20th century, when the advent of water chlorination reduced public concerns about water-borne diseases in municipal water supplies. However, it remained popular in Europe, where it spread to cafes and grocery stores in the second half of the century. In 1977, Perrier launched a successful advertisement campaign in the United States, heralding a rebirth in popularity for bottled water.Today, bottled water is the second most popular commercial beverage in the United States, with about half the domestic consumption as soft drinks.

Water Chemistry
Many of the early developments in the field of chemistry can be attributed to the study of natural mineral waters and attempts to replicate them for commercial sale. Joseph Priestley, who would discover oxygen in 1775, made his first contributions to the field of chemistry by dissolving carbon dioxide in water, for which he was awarded the Copley Medal in 1773. He would go on to work with Johann Jacob Schweppe, founder of Schweppes, in developing aerated waters for commercial sale.

PET Plastic Bottles
In 1973, DuPont engineer Nathaniel Wyeth patented Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, the first plastic bottle to be able to withstand the pressure of carbonated liquids. Today, PET plastic has replaced glass as the preferred material for single serving bottled water containers due to its light weight and resistance to breaking.

Types
Distilled, purified water, in Hong Kong
Some of the more common types of bottled water are:
Artesian water is the water that originates from a confined aquifer that has been tapped and in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.
Fluoridated type of water contains added fluoride. This category includes water classified as “For Infants” or Nursery.
Groundwater comes from an underground source that is under a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.
Mineral water comes from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such
as salts and sulfur compounds. It comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or spring, and originates from a geologically and physically protected underground water source. No minerals may be added to this water.
Purified water type has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may also be referred to as demineralized water.
Sparkling water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and replenished after treatment.
Spring water comes from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the Earth’s surface.
Sterile water meets sterilization requirements, for example, those specified under sterility tests in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
Well water is taken from a hole tapping, etc. This hole may be bored, drilled or otherwise constructed in the ground.

Product Forms
The Beverage Marketing Corporation defines the bottled water market segment as retail PET, retail bulk, home and office delivery, vending, domestic sparkling and imports, but excluding flavored and enhanced water.

Purified water vending machines
A bottle has less drinking water vending machine in Pattaya, Thailand. Customers bring their containers.
The most common packaging material for single-serve, non-carbonated bottled water in the United States and Europe is Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic. Marked in many countries with resin identification code number “1,” PET is 100pc recyclable, though recycling rates vary by region. In 2014, approximately 1.8 billion pounds of post consumer PET bottles were collected in the United States and 1.75 million metric ton (approximately 3.9 billion pounds) were collected in the European Union, making it the most recycled plastic in both the United States and Europe. In the United States, the recycling rate for PET packaging was 31.8pc in 2014; in the European Union, the recycling rate for PET packaging for the same period was approximately 52pc.
The National Association for PET Container Resources (NAPCOR), the trade association for the PET plastic packaging industry in the United States and Canada, identifies five major, generic end use categories for recycled PET plastic1) packaging applications, including new bottles; 2) sheet and film applications, including some thermoforming applications; strapping; engineered resins applications; and 5) fiber applications. According to the nonprofit Recycling across America, five individual serving PET plastic bottles provide enough fiber to make one square foot of carpet or to fill one ski jacket.
In Europe, more than one third of recovered PET plastic is used to produce polyester fibers, and another quarter is used in the production of preformed plastic containers, such as egg cartons, fruit boxes, and other plastic beverage bottles.

Water and energy usage.
Bottled drinking water delivery
In China on an average, it takes 1.32 liters of water to produce 1 liter of bottled water. This includes 1 liter of ingredient water and 0.32 liters of water used in facility processes such as treatment, bottling, and maintenance. Small pack facilities, facilities that package water in containers between 8 oz. and 2.5 gallons, use the least amount of water 1.26 liters per 1 liter, followed by mixed packaging facilities, 1.46 liters per 1 liter. Facilities that package water for home and office delivery in sizes of 2.5 gallons to 5 gallons use the most water, 1.56 liters per 1 liter.
Bottled water has lower water usage than bottled soft drinks, which averaged 2.02 liters per 1 liter, as well as beer, 4 liters per 1 liter, and wine, 4.74 liters per 1 liter. The larger per-liter water consumption of these drinks can be attributed to additional ingredients and production processes, such as flavor mixing and carbonization for soft drinks and fermentation for beer and wine. In the United States, bottled water production represents 0.011pc of annual water consumption.
Critics of bottled water argue that the industry should take into account not just water used in its production and packaging process, but the total water footprint of its supply chain, which includes water used in the production of its packaging.
A 2011 IBWA lifecycle inventory study found that the production, packaging, and transportation of bottled water within the United States consumes 107.4 trillion BTUs of energy annually, which represents about .07% of yearly energy consumption in the country. According to the same study, 6.8 million tons of CO2 eq are emitted by the bottled water industry a year in the United States, about .08% of annual emissions. An Aetna Group study in 2015 concluded that each liter of bottled water requires 0.24 megajoules of energy to produce. The lifecycle carbon footprint for a half liter of small pack bottled water is 111 grams CO2 eq. By comparison, the same sized PET plastic bottled soft drink produces 240 grams CO2 eq. Soft drink bottles require much thicker plastic due to carbonation, and therefore many more grams of CO2 eq.

Global sales
Global bottled water sales have increased dramatically over the past several decades, reaching a valuation of around $60 billion and a volume of more than 115,000,000 cubic meters (3.0×1010 US gal) in 2006. The US sales reached around 30 billion bottles of water in 2008, a slight drop from 2007 levels.
The rate of consumption is more than quadrupled between 1990 and 2005. Spring water and purified tap water are currently the leading global sellers. By an estimate, approximately 50 billion bottles of water are consumed per year in the US and around 200 billion bottles globally.

Australia
The Australasian Bottled Water Institute is a regional member of the International Council of Bottled Water Associations. The bottled water industry in Australia is worth approximately $400 million per year.
An up market restaurant in Sydney has stopped selling bottled water and started using a machine costing A$5000 to filter, chill and carbonate tap water to get the same quality water.

European Union
Directive 2009 deals with the marketing and exploitation of natural mineral waters in the European Union. The two main types of bottled water recognized are mineral water and spring water.
Broadly speaking, mineral water” is groundwater that has emerged from the ground and flowed over rock. Treatment of mineral water is restricted to removal of unstable elements such as ironand sulfur compounds. Treatment for such minerals may extend only to filtration or decanting with oxygenation. Free carbon dioxide may be removed only by physical methods, and the regulations for introduction (or reintroduction) of CO2 are strictly defined. Disinfection of natural mineral water is completely prohibited, including the addition of any element that is likely to change bacterial colony counts. If natural mineral water is effervescent, it must be labelled accordingly, depending on the origin of the carbon dioxide: naturally carbonated natural mineral water, (no introduction of CO2); natural mineral water fortified with gas from the spring, reintroduction of CO2); carbonated natural mineral water CO2 added following strict guidelines).
Directive 2001/83/EC deals with bottled water that is considered a medicinal product and is thus excluded from the scope of the other regulation.

India
The bottled water industry in India witnessed a boom in the late 1990s soon after Bisleri launched its packaged drinking water in the country. This significant growth was fuelled by a surge in advertising by the industry players that “bottled water was pure and healthy”.
The total market was valued at ?60 billion (US$890 million) in 2013, of which the top five players (Bisleri, PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and Parle) accounted for 67% of the market share. This market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 22,pc%, to reach ?160 billion (US$2.4 billion) in 2018.
In 2016, Sikkim announced restrictions on the usage of plastic water bottles (in government functions and meetings) and styrofoam products as it is associated with adverse health and environment impacts.

Lebanon
Lebanon has one of the fastest growth rates of per capita consumption of bottled water. Lebanon has seven major brands of bottled mineral water for local consumption and for exportation to the water-starved countries on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Persian Gulf.

New Zealand
Bottled water in New Zealand is regulated by Food Standards Australia New Zealand and must comply with the Food Act 1981. From July 2009 fluoride was allowed to be present in bottled water as an additive or as a natural occurring mineral.

Pakistan
Due to contaminated water being widespread, in the mid-1980s urban families started installing filtration units at home. This later developed into companies providing mineral water delivery services at home. Use of these 1-US-gallon (3.8 L) bottles that could be attached to a dispenser is still widespread.
Bottled water was made famous by one of the largest marketing campaigns in Pakistan history undertaken by Nestle. Eventually, other bottlers including dozens of local ones, Coca Cola, Pepsi, Mineral Drops by water icon, Nature, Vey, Nova Pure Water Larkana, Mina Water, Great Water Islamabad, Dew Drop, and other imported brands such as the country.

United States
The US is the second largest consumer market for bottled water in the world, followed by Mexico, Indonesia, and Brazil. China surpassed the United States to take the lead in 2013. In 2008, US bottled water sales topped 8.6 billion US gallons (33,000,000 m3) for 28.9pc of the US liquid beverage market, exceeding sales of all other beverages except carbonated soft drinks, they are followed by fruit juices, and sports drinks.Americans drink 21 US gallons (79 L) of bottled water per capita per year.
In the United States, bottled water and tap water are regulated by different federal agencies: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quality of tap water. The International Bottled Water Association(IBWA) is headquartered in Alexandria, VA.
From 1970 (16 brands) over 1998 (50 brands) to 2012 (195 brands), the number of mineral water brands in the U.S. has grown exponentially.
Consumer information
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates all packaged foods and beverage products, including bottled water, and mandates labeling requirements. FDA labeling requirements include a statement of the type of water in the container, compliance with the applicable definitions in the FDA Standards of Identity, ingredient labeling, name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer or distributor, net weight, and, if required, nutrition labeling.
Consumer information
Public water systems are required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide households in their service territories with a Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) that provides information on the quality of their water during the previous year. Such disclosures are not required by the FDA of any packaged food or beverage product, including bottled water. All packaged foods and beverages, must be manufactured according to FDA regulations and must meet all applicable quality and safety standards.
A bottled water refill station in a Canadian grocery store
In Canada, bottled water must meet the standards in the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations (FDAR) as it is considered a food. The FDAR works in partnership with Health Canada and Canadian in developing the policies regarding bottled water. The CFIA focuses more on regulations pertaining to packaging, labeling, advertising, and other safety practices, whereas the FDAR focuses more on the water itself. For example, the bottled water must meet the Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Regulations in Division; Part B of the Act must be met before it is approved for sale. Some of the regulations include: labeling terms, safety standards, i.e.: what is/isn’t acceptable), and microbiological standards, i.e.: chlorine. In addition to this, the type of filtration method the water has gone through must be shown on the label following criteria:
originate from an underground source which is not part of a community water supply; and be naturally fit to drink, at the source; and before bottling, not be treated in any way that changes the original chemical composition of the water. (The allowable treatments are discussed in this report. section 1.2.)
In Canada, there are two categories of bottled water: 1) spring/mineral water, or 2) water other than mineral water or spring water.

Emergency preparedness
Emergency preparedness refers to the steps taken prior to a natural disaster or emergency to ensure safety throughout the event. The American Red Cross and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recommend that individuals and families maintain disaster supply kits in the event that an emergency disrupts food supply or public water systems, blocks roads, or leaves people unable to find essentials.[64][65] Following disasters such as floods, blizzards, or earthquakes, water sources can be cut off or contaminated, limiting access to safe, clean drinking water. For this reason, FEMA recommends that all disaster supply kits include one gallon of water per person per day for at least three days for drinking and sanitation. In hot climates, FEMA recommends doubling this quantity.
For the water supply, FEMA recommends commercially bottled water kept in a cool, dark place. As an alternative, FEMA recommends using disinfected food-grade water containers to store tap water and replacing the water every six months.