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Life & Times – Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Jinnah’s father Jinnahbhai Poonja (born 1850) was the youngest of three sons. He married a girl Mithibai with the consent of his parents and moved to the growing port of Karachi.

There, the young couple rented an apartment on the second floor of a three-storey house, Wazir Mansion. The Wazir Mansion has since been rebuilt and made into a national monument and museum owing to the fact that the founder of the nation, and one of the greatest leaders of all times was born within its walls.

On December 25, 1876, Mithibai gave birth to a son, the first of seven children. The fragile infant who appeared so weak that it weighed a few pounds less than normal. But Mithibai was unusually fond of her little boy, insisting he would grow up to be an achiever.

Officially named Mahomedali Jinnahbhai, his father enrolled him in school when he was six-the Sindh Madrasatul-Islam; Jinnah was indifferent to his studies and loathed arithmetic, preferring to play outdoors with his friends. His father was especially keen towards his studying arithmetic as it was vital in his business.

By the early 1880s’ Jinnahbhai Poona’s trade business had prospered greatly. He handled all sorts of goods: cotton, wool, hides, oil-seeds, and grain for export and Manchester manufactured piece of goods, metals, and refined sugar imports into the busy port. Business was good and profits were soaring high.

In 1887, Jinnahbhai’s only sister Man Bai came to visit from Bombay. Jinnah was very fond of his Aunt and vice versa. She offered to take her nephew with her in order to give him a chance of better education at the metropolitan city, Bombay, that was much to his mother’s dismay who could not bear the thought of being separated from her undisputedly favorite child.

Jinnah joined Gokal Das Tej Primary School in Bombay. His spirited brain rebelled inside the typical Indian primary school which relied mostly on the method of learning by rote. He remained in Bombay for only six months, returned to Karachi upon his mother’s insistence and joined the Sind Madrassa.

His name was struck off as he frequently cut classes in order to ride his father’s horses. He was fascinated by the horses and lured towards them. He also enjoyed reading poetry at his own leisure. As a child Jinnah was never intimidated by the authority and was not easy to control.

He then joined the Christian Mission High School where his parents thought his restless mind could be focused. Karachi proved more prosperous for young Jinnah than Bombay had been. His father’s business had prospered so much by this time that he had his own stables and carriages.

Jinnahbhai Poonja’s firm was closely associated with the leading British managing agency in Karachi, Douglas Graham And Company. Sir Frederick Leigh Croft, the general manager of the company, had a great influence over young Jinnah, which possibly lasted his entire life.
Jinnah looked up to the handsome, well dressed and a successful man. Sir Frederick liked Mamad (Jinnah’s childhood name), recognizing his extreme potential, he offered him an apprenticeship at his office in London.

The kind of opportunity was the dream of all young boys of India, but the privilege went to only one in a million. Sir Frederick had truly picked one in a million when he chose Jinnah.

When Jinnah’s mother heard of his plans of going to London for at least two years, she objected strongly to such a move. For her, the separation for six months while her dear son had been in Bombay was testing; she said that she could not bear this long never ending stretch of two to three years. Maybe the intuition told her that separation would be permanent for her and that she would never see her son again.

After much persuasion by adamant Jinnah, she consented, but with the condition that Jinnah would marry before he went to England. ‘England’, she said ‘was a dangerous country to send an unmarried and handsome young man like her son.

Some English girl might lure him into marriage and that would be a tragedy for the Jinnah Poonja family. Realizing the importance of his mother’s demand, Jinnah conceded to it.

Mithibai arranged his marriage with a fourteen-year-old girl named Emibai from the Paneli village. The parents made all wedding arrangements. The young couple quietly accepted the arranged marriage including all other decisions regarding the wedding like most youngsters in India at that time.

‘Mohammad was hardly sixteen and had never seen the girl he was to marry.’ Jinnah’s sister Fatima reports. ‘Decked from head to foot in long flowing rows of flowers…, he marched in a procession from his grand-father’s house to that of his father-in-law, where sat his fourteen year old bride, Emi Bai, dressed in expensive new clothes, heavily bejeweled, her hands spotted with henna, her face and clothes heavily sprinkled with costly itar.”

The ceremony took place in February 1892; it was a grand affair celebrated by the whole village. Huge lunch and dinner parties were arranged and all were invited. It was the wedding of Jinnahbhai Poonja and Mithibai’s first son and the entire village was lured into the festivity.

During their prolonged stay in Paneli, Jinnahbhai’s business began to suffer. It was needed for him to return but he wished to take his family and his son’s new bride along with him. The bride’s father however, was adamant that Jinnah should stay for the customary period of one and a half month after marriage.

The two families, newly bonded in marriage, were about to break into a quarrel until the intervention of young Jinnah. He spoke to his father-in-law in privacy and informed him that it was necessary for his father to return immediately along with his family.

He gave the option of either sending the young bride back with him or sending her later when he would go to England for two or three years.

Jinnah’s persuasive power, coupled with extreme politeness was evident even at that age. Emi Bai’s father consented to send his daughter and the wedding party returned to Karachi.
How Jinnah felt about that marriage and his new bride was uncertain, he had little time to adjust since he sailed off to England soon after his return.

Upon their return to Karachi, his young bride observed the custom of covering her face with her headscarf in front of her father-in-law. But the progressive Jinnah soon encouraged her to discard this practice.

He studied in the Christian Mission School until the end of October in order to improve his English before his voyage that was planned by November 1892, though some argue that he sailed in January 1893. He was not to see his young bride ever again as she died soon after he sailed from India.

SECOND WEDDING
Quaid had best and close relations with Parsi community. He used to visit Sir Dinshaw Petit, a Parsi businessman; Sir Dinshaw had a daughter, Ruttie who was convinced by Jinnah’s qualities of head and heart. She started taking interest in Jinnah. Her interest converted into love during their summer vacation to Darjeeling in April 1916.

When Sir Dinshaw came to know their love affair, he forbade Ruttie ever to see Jinnah again. Then he sought legal remedies to prevent their marriage. The couple silently, patiently, passionately waited till Ruttie attained her majority at 18.

Jinnah married Ruttie on Friday, April 19, 1918. She had converted to Islam. None of Ruttie’s relatives attended her wedding. The Raja of Mahamudabad gave Ruttie a ring as a wedding gift. They spent their honeymoon at Nainital.

Maulana Muhammad Hassan Najafi on behalf of Ruttie and Haji Muhammad Abdul Hashim Najafi on behalf of Jinnah signed the Nikah document/Register.

At about midnight (August 14-15, 1919) their only child, a daughter named Dina was born in London. The relations between Jinnah and Ruttie were smooth and pleasant. But in January 1928 after their return from All India Muslim Leagues Annual Session at Calcutta, Ruttie and Jinnah started living separately.

Apparently there was a separation between the couple but Ruttie’s love for Jinnah was never ending. She wrote to him in October 1928 while coming back from Paris to India.

She wrote, “Darling thank you for all you have done…. Darling I love you-I love you…. I only beseech you that our tragedy, which commenced with love, should also end with it.

A JOUNERY TO LONDON

Jinnah barely sixteen sailed for London in the midst of winter. When he was saying goodbye to his mother her eyes were heavy with tears. He told her not to cry and said that he will return a great man from England and not only she and the family but the whole country will be proud of him. This was the last time he saw his mother, for she, like his wife, died during his three and a half year stay in England.

The youngest passenger on his own was befriended by a kind Englishman who engaged in conversations with him and gave tips about life in England. He also gave Jinnah his address in London and later invited to dine with his family as often as he could.

His father had deposited enough money in his son’s account to last him for the three years of the intended stay. Jinnah used that money wisely and was able to have a small amount left over at the end of his three and a half year tenure.

When he arrived in London he rented a modest room in a hotel. He lived in different places before he moved into the house of Mrs. F. E. Page-Drake as a houseguest at 35 Russell Road in Kensington. This house now displays a blue and white ceramic oval saying that the ‘founder of Pakistan stayed here in 1895.

Mrs. Page- Drake, a widow, took an instant liking to the impeccably dressed well-mannered young man. Her daughter however, had a more keen interest in the handsome Jinnah, who was of the same age of Jinnah. She hinted her intentions but did not get a favorable response. As Fatima reflects, “he was not the type who would squander his affections on passing fancies”

Jinnah Application Lincoln’s Inn Council

On March 30, 1895 Jinnah applied to Lincoln’s Inn Council for the alteration of his name from Mahomedalli Jinnahbhai to Mahomed Alli Jinnah, which he anglicized to M.A. Jinnah. This was granted to him in April 1895.

Though he found life in London dreary at first and was unable to accept the cold winters and gray skies, he soon adjusted to those surroundings, quite the opposite of what he was accustomed to in India.

After joining Lincoln’s Inn in June 1893, he developed further interest in politics. He thought the world of politics was ‘glamorous’ and often went to the House of Commons and marveled at the speeches he heard there. Although his father was furious when he learnt of Jinnah’s change in plan regarding his career, there was little he could do to alter what his son had made his mind up for.

At that point in life Jinnah was totally alone in his decisions, with no moral support from his father or any help from Sir Frederick. He was left with his chosen course of action without a pillar of support to fall back upon. It would not be the only time in his life when he would be isolated in a difficult position. But without hesitation he set off on his chosen task and managed to succeed.

THE THEATER

During his stay in London, Jinnah frequently visited the theatre. He was mesmerized by the acting, especially those of the Shakespearean actors. His dream was to ‘play the role of Romeo at the Old Vic.’ It is unclear when his passion for theatre was unfurlled, perhaps it occurred while watching the performances of barristers, ‘the greatest of whom were often spell-binding thespians’.

This was no passing phase in life, but an obsession which continued even in his later years. Fatima reminiscences, “Even in the days of his most active political life, when he returned home tired … he would take a play of Shakespeare and quietly read it in his bed”.
With a theatrical prop, his monocle, always in place in court, he performed like an actor on stage in front of the judge and jury. With dramatic interrogations and imperious asides, he was regarded as a born actor.

After being enrolled to the Bar he went with his friends to the Manager of a theatrical company who asked him to read out pieces of Shakespeare. On doing so, he was immediately offered a job. He was exultant and wrote to his parents about his newfound passion.

He said, ‘I wrote to them that law was a lingering profession where success was uncertain; a stage career was much better, and it gave me a good start, and that I would now be independent and not bother them with grants of money at all.

” My father wrote a long letter to me strongly disapproving of my project; but there was one sentence in his letter that touched me most and which influenced a change in my decision: “Do not be a traitor to the family.” I went to my employers and conveyed to them that I no longer looked forward to a stage career. They were surprised, and they tried to persuade me, but my mind was made up

The signed contract is proof that how important the stage career was for Jinnah at that time, it was possibly his first love. His father’s letter had dissuaded him for the time being, disheartened and dejected; he had consented to his wish. But it was probably the last time he changed his mind after seriously devoting it to something.

LIFE IN LONDON

Jinnah left for England in January 1893, landed at Southampton, catching the boat train to Victoria Station. “During the first few months I found a strange country and unfamiliar surroundings,” he recalled. “I did not know a soul and the fogs and winter in London upset me a great deal”.

He worked at Graham’s for a while surrounded by stacks of account books he was expected to copy and balance. His father had deposited enough money in his account in a British bank to last for three years of his stay in London. He took a room as houseguest in a modest three-story house at 35 Russell Road in Kensington.

He arrived in London in February 1893 and after two months he left Graham’s on April 25 of that year to join Lincoln’s Inn, one of the oldest and well reputed legal societies that prepared students for the Bar.

On June 25, 1893, he embarked on his study of the law at Lincoln’s Inn. His quest for general books especially on politics and biographies led him to apply to the British Museum Library and he became a subscriber of the Museum Library.

The two years of “reading” apprenticeship that he spent in barrister’s chambers was the most important element in Jinnah’s legal education. He used to follow his master’s professional footsteps outside the chambers as well.

When Jinnah landed at Southampton, it was the peak of British power and influence in the world. The Victorian era was about to end and a new economic order was struggling to be born. Young Jinnah was greatly affected by the life in what was then called, “the greatest capital of the world”, where people had more freedom to pursue what they believed in.

Apart from his upbringing according to the traditions and ethics of a religious family, the Victorian moral code not only colored his social behavior but also greatly affected his professional conduct as a practicing lawyer.

Jinnah’s political beliefs and personal demeanor as a public man in India for four decades clearly indicate that his training, education and life in London profoundly influenced his way of life.

It was that influence and training that helped him a great deal in presenting the most important case of his life and eventually led him to win that case a free country for the Muslims of the subcontinent.

In London, he received the tragic news of the death of his mother and first wife. Nevertheless, he completed his formal studies and also made a study of the British political system by frequently visiting the House of Commons. He was the youngest student ever to be called to the Bar.

It was in London that he acquired love of personal freedom and national independence. Inspired by the British democratic principles and fired by a new faith in supremacy of law, liberalism and constitutionalism became twin tools of Jinnah’s political creed which he daringly but discreetly used during the rest of his life. He was greatly influenced by the liberalism of William E. Gladstone, who had become prime minister for the fourth time in 1892.

Jinnah also took keen interest in the political affairs of India. He was extremely conscious of the lack of a strong voice from India in the British Parliament.

So, when the Parsi leader Dadabhai Naoroji, a leading Indian nationalist, ran for the British Parliament, it created a wave of enthusiasm among Indian students in London. Naoroji became the first Indian to sit in the House of Commons. Naoroji’s victory acted as a stimulus for Jinnah to lay the foundation of the “political career” that he had in his mind.
Jinnah was a marvelous speaker and was recognized as a balanced and reasoned debater. His power of speech had an ability to mesmerize the audience.

QUAID AS A LAWYER

Having qualified as a barrister in England and having made his mark in India, Jinnah’s name could be justly added to the ‘list of great lawyers’ academically linked to Lincoln’s Inn. Jinnah practiced both law and politics for half a century; he made a fortune as an advocate and earned glory and gratitude of prosperity as leader of the Indian Muslims.
When Jinnah left the shores of free England and voyaged to subject India in 1896, he had perhaps no idea that, one day, he would be obliged by the erstwhile Hindu leaders to make history and his biggest brief would be to win the case of the Indian Muslims for a separate homeland.

LIFE IN BOMBAY

Jinnah left London for India in 1896. He decided to go to Bombay after a brief stay in Karachi. He opted for Bombay because it offered scope for the exercise of his legal faculties and ground for his political ambitions. Bombay had the brightest constellation of India’s lawyer-politicians, at that time.

He was enrolled as a barrister in Bombays’ high court on August 24, 1896. He took up lodgings in Room No.110 of Apollo Hotel. Father’s business had suffered serious losses by then, and he could hardly get any brief for a year or so but he never stopped helping the poor and needy, even in his precarious financial position.

In a letter to the Times of India, Bombay, the June 10, 1910 issue, he appealed to the well-off section of the Muslim Community in Bombay to aid a Muslim orphanage in the city. He donated a handsome amount to the orphanage at a time when his practice was not even flourishing.

By 1900, he was introduced to Bombay’s acting advocate-general, John Moles worth McPherson, and was invited to work with him in his office. But soon he succeeded in crossing all the hurdles to become a leading lawyer of India. He won many famous cases through powerful advocacy and legal logic.

Jinnah appeared in the annual session of the All India Congress, Calcutta, 1906. Dadabhai Naoroji presided over the session with Jinnah serving as his secretary. In his speech Dadabhai called the partition of Bengal a bad blunder for England and addressed the growing distance between the Hindus and the Muslims in the aftermath of partition.

He called for a thorough political union among the Indian people of all creeds and classes. To him, the thorough union, therefore, of the entire person for their emancipation was an absolute necessity. He viewed that they must sink or swim together. He told them that all efforts would go in vain without union.

Jinnah reiterated this call for national unity at every political meeting he attended in those years and he emerged as true Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity.

THE STATESMAN

If Jinnah’s stay in London was the sowing time, the first decade in Bombay, after return from England, was the germination season, the next decade (1906-1916) marked the vintage stage; it could also be called a period of idealism, as Jinnah was a romanticist both in personal and political life.

Jinnah came out of his shell, political limelight shone on him; he was budding as a lawyer and flowering as a political personality. A political child during the first decade of the century, Jinnah had become a political giant before Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. Jinnah’s fascination with the world of politics started from his early days in London.

He was very impressed by Dadabhai, a Parsi from Bombay. Upon returning to India, Jinnah entered the world of politics as a Liberal nationalist and joined the Congress despite his father’s fury at his abandoning the family business.

The 20th annual session of the Congress in December 1904, was the first attended by Jinnah in Bombay. It was presided over by Pherozshah Mehta of whom Jinnah was a great admirer.

Mehta suggested that two of his chosen disciples be sent to London as Congress deputies to observe the political arena at that time. His choices for the job were M.A Jinnah and Gopal Krishna Gokhale whose wisdom and moderation the former also admired.

Quaid-i-Azam Role in Pakistan’s Creation

Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah started his political career in the year 1906 when he was selected as private secretary to Dadabhoy Naoroji. Under his guidance the Quaid political experience was enhanced but he was raw in the field at that time.

In the year 1909 the Muslims of Bombay selected him as their representative and the same year Jinnah was elected a member of the Imperial Legislative Council and showed his political accumen in the council.

In the year 1919 the Row Latt Act was enforced in India which in the opinion of most political leaders was a black law, according to which the ruling government had full powers to arrest anyone without any warrant. Quaid-i-Azam vehemently opposed this law.

In the year 1913, when Quaid was in London where he met Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar who invited him to join the All India Muslim League.

The same year Jinnah became a member of the Muslim League. In the year 1916, due to the efforts of the Quaid the Lucknow Pact was signed between the Muslim League and the Congress.

It was a great success for Quaid because Congress had accepted separate electorate for the Muslims of India.

Due to this pact the Quaid was called Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity but this unity did not last long and in the year 1924 this unity vanished in thin air because of non-cooperative attitude of Mr M. K Gandhi in the Khilafat Movement and after the period of 1924 the Indian Muslims were in deep trouble due to the launching of the Arya Samaj Movements.

Due to this movement riots and bloodshed started all over India and Muslims were being killed everywhere.

In the year 1928, the Nehru Report was published which great injustice was done to the Muslims and their political rights were snatched. This attitude of the Congress disappointed the Quaid and in the year 1929 he presented the famous fourteen points for the protection of the rights of the Muslims.

In the year 1929, Quaid-i-Azam wrote a long letter to the British Prime Minister Sir Ramsay McDonald in order to find a political solution for India. Due to Quaid’s efforts three sessions of Round Table Conference was held in London.

However the antagonistic and non-cooperative attitude of M.K Gandhi resulted in the failure of these conferences. The Quaid was so disgusted by the behaviour of the Congress leaders that he decided not to return to India and settle down in London for good but due to letters of Allama Iqbal which impressed him very much the Quaid-i-Azam returned to India and in the year 1934 became a permanent member of the Muslim League. But in the election of 1937 Muslim League was disappointed badly for the Congress formed governments in eight of the provinces of India and from the period of 1937 to 1939, the Indian Muslims were in distress.

In the year 1939 the Second World War broke out and the Congress demanded maximum provincial autonomy which was not acceptable to the Government of India due to which Congress Ministries resigned and the Muslims took a sigh of relief.

In the year 1939 on the advice of the Quaid the Indian Muslims celebrated “the day of deliverance”, because the cruelties and injustices of the Hindus had come to an end.

In the year 1940 the 27th meeting of Muslim League was held at Lahore. On 22nd March 1940 the Quaid-i-Azam addressed a large gathering of Muslims in Iqbal Park, Lahore, and presented the idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. In the year 1942 the Cripps Mission came to India but the Quaid did not co-operate with it because this mission had suggested formulation of Indian Union.

After the departure of Cripps the Congress started Quit-India Movement but Jinnah had forbidden the Muslims to join this movement of non-violence.

The government crushed this movement and many leaders of the Congress, including M.K. Gandhi were sent to jail and in the year 1944-45 when Mr Gandhi was released Jinnah-Gandhi talks started but Mr Gandhi did not acknowledge Muslims as a nation. Thus this meeting failed in its purpose.

In the year 1945 the Simla Conference was held but due to the non-cooperative attitude of the leaders of the Congress it failed.

In the year 1946 the cabinet Mission plan came to India to find out a solution for the political crisis of India. The Indians were ready to accept interim government but in this government a lot of differences cropped up hence the Quaid directly demanded the establishment of Pakistan.

After the departure of Lord Wavell from India Lord Mountbatten came as the last of Viceroy of India in March 1947.

After his arrival in Dehli he met Quaid and the leaders of Congress and presented the proposal of 3rd June in 1947 which was acceptable to the Muslim League and Congress. And thus due to great efforts of the Quaid-i-Azam Pakistan came into being on 14th August, 1947.

ECONOMIC PROSPERITY

If Pakistan is to play its proper role in the world to which its size, manpower and resources entitle it, it must develop industrial potential alongside its agriculture and give its economy and industrial base by industrializing our State.

We shall decrease our dependence on the outside world for necessities of life; we will give more employment to our people and will also increase the resources of the State.’
Qaid’s popular excerpts
“I do not believe in taking the right decision, I take a decision and make it right.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Think a hundred times before you take a decision, but once that decision is taken; stand by it as one man.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“There are two powers in the world; one is the sword and the other is the pen. There is a great competition and rivalry between the two. There is a third power stronger than both, that of the women.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Expect the best, prepare for the worst.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Democracy is in the blood of the Muslims, who look upon complete equality of mankind, and believe in fraternity, equality, and liberty.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners. There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“You will have to make up for the smallness of your size by your courage and selfless devotion to duty, for it is not life that matters, but the courage, fortitude and determination you bring to it.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“You are free; you are free to go to your temples. You are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, caste or creed-that has nothing to do with the business of the state.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“No nation can ever be worthy of its existence that cannot take its women along with the men. No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men. There are two powers in the world; one is the sword and the other is the pen. There is a great competition and rivalry between the two. There is a third power stronger than both, that of the women.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a subcontinent of nationalities.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“The great majority of us are Muslims. We follow the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed (May peace be upon him). We are members of the brotherhood of Islam in which all are equal in rights, dignity and self-respect. Consequently, we have a special and a very deep sense of unity. But make no mistake: Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Do not forget that the armed forces are the servants of the people. You do not make national policy; it is we, the civilians, who decide these issues and it is your duty to carry out these tasks with which you are entrusted.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“I have lived as plain Mr. Jinnah and I hope to die as plain Mr. Jinnah. I am very much averse to any title or honours and I will be more than happy if there was no prefix to my name.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“We have undoubtedly achieved Pakistan, and that too without bloody war, practically peacefully, by moral and intellectual force, and with the power of the pen, which is no less mighty than that of the sword and so our righteous cause has triumphed. Are we now going to besmear and tarnish this greatest achievement for which there is no parallel in the history of the world? Pakistan is now a fait accompli and it can never be undone; besides, it was the only just, honourable, and practical solution of the most complex constitutional problem of this great subcontinent. Let us now plan to build and reconstruct and regenerate our great nation…”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Any idea of a United India could never have worked and in my judgment it would have led us to terrific disaster.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Islam expect every Muslim to do this duty, and if we realize our responsibility time will come soon when we shall justify ourselves worthy of a glorious past.”
? Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“I have nothing to do with this pseudo-religious approach that Gandhi is advocating.”
? Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but the Muslim Ideology which has to be preserved, which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which, we hope other will share with us.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“I sincerely hope that they (relations between India and Pakistan) will be friendly and cordial. We have a great deal to do…and think that we can be of use to each other and to the world.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Come forward as servants of Islam organize the people economically, socially, educationally and politically and I am sure that you will be a power that will be accepted by everybody.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“Failure is a word unknown to me.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“No settlement with the majority is possible as no Hindu leader speaking with any authority shows any concern or genuine desire for it.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence. Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with the grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“My message to you all is of hope, courage, and confidence.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“When Mrs. Jinnah feels cold, she will say so, and ask for a wrap herself.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to the duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men”
Muhammad Ali Jinnah