A kind of mental disorder

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Quraitulain Qureshi : The writer is a BS (Journalism) MA(IR) Content writer for the past 3 years.

ASD Autism spectrum disorders) Comprises a range of psychological and social behavioural and complications regarding emotions in adults and children that can influence their day-to-day educational goals, functioning, independent living options and employment opportunities.
Primordial of the disorder is important so that suitable interventions including speech therapy, behaviour management. Social skills training can be swiftly noviced for improved prediction. Rearmost last 15 for years, extensive practitioners have become more aware about autism in Pakistan.
There are a number of children now being diagnosed with ASD all over Pakistan. Autism hitherto been viewed mostly as a male disorder The Centre for Disease Control in Washington states on its website that autism is four times more common in males than in females. Although, contemporary studies are evolving another point of view supported by famous autistic women, that the number of women with autism could also be more than this ratio (4:1). Since many women are successful in ‘masking’ their typical autistic traits such as social anxiety and sensory overload and have fewer repetitive behaviours, it is difficult to diagnose them as utistic at a young age as they need to learn to ‘copy’ typical behaviours of their peers and have a greater ability to hide their symptoms. As a result, many women are diagnosed late and mainly through self-reported autistic traits, some even when they are in their 50s and 60s.
Another common belief is that autism in females is more severe and mostly conjoined with significant intellectual disability. While this is true in most cases, it could also mean that medical professionals are missing out on girls who have mild symptoms, are high-functioning or have Asperger’s syndrome. Interestingly, Dr. Asperger had suggested in 1943 that the onset of autism in some females just might be after puberty. It is now emerging that the different symptoms of autism can have different expressions in females, an aspect that is currently missing from the DSM V diagnostic criteria for ASD..Many parents have reported that their girls went undiagnosed by clinicians, or were given other diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and even anorexia. A study conducted by Marion Rutherford with UK clinicians in 2016 found that the ratio of autism in adults might be as much as 2:1 for males and females.
The consistently low numbers of girls diagnosed with autism may also be the outcome of cultural pressure, and patriarchal gender biases or depression anxiety disorders Comprises from their childhood. While parents are prone to deny the existence of any disorder in their children, when the school teacher also fails to report that something is amiss, they like to not delve too deep in interpreting signs of maladjustment that their daughter may frequently demonstrate.
Autistic girls demonstrate fewer problems with motor skills, may be more socially motivated and able to internalize their frustrations rather than expressing themselves through violent and/or bizarre behaviours, but they may have higher levels of passivity, anxiety and depression. They can also have intense emotions, impulsivity, mood swings and psychological distress that may lead them to succumb relatively more easily to other personality disorders. For example, the co occurrence of anorexia nervosa – over 10 females to at least one male -may suggest a link with an autism diagnosis as many anorexic patients demonstrate typical traits of ASD like self-concern, inflexibility and particularity.
In Australia, Jane McGillivray and her colleagues compared 25 autistic boys and 25 autistic girls with a similar number of typically developing children. “On a measure of friendship quality and empathy, autistic girls scored as high as typically developing boys of an equivalent age but less than typically developing girls.” In fact, in a current study being carried out by Harvard, UCLA and the University of Washington, preliminary findings are that “girls with autism aren’t like boys with autism briefly, the brain of a woman with autism could also be more like the brain of a typical boy than that of a boy with autism.” this is often indeed an eye-opener, as it suggests that the so-called ‘typical’ males may have an equivalent sort of brains as ‘atypical’ females diagnosed with autism. This finding may effectively turn the entire methodology of ASD diagnosis on its head.
A different set of assessment tools are needed to define and measure the subtle ways in which autistic women cope with the world around them, “superficially” managing and camouflaging social and personal relationships in the initial family environment, in schools and college, workplaces, and later on in their married lives. Their personality disorders become more prominent as they continue to struggle with higher stress levels without a diagnosis that could have given them a sense of personal identity earlier on, helped them to explore their innate talents, prevented at least some conduct disorders and psychopathological problems, improved the quality of their lives, and protected them from many mortifications arising out of their social naivete.
All this is very interesting and groundbreaking, so parents and professionals in Pakistan should be wary ofaccepting the 4:1 ratio of boys and girls on the autism spectrum at face value.
In fact, our psychologists and researchers and sociologists should come up with fresh findings on the subject especially in our traditional and cultural settings where many autistic girls have no option other than to blend in with norms of social behaviour and expectations framed by a male-dominated society, and remain undiagnosed and misunderstood until they reach a crisis point in their lives.

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