Alliance or strategic partnership?

Hadiqa Mir

Pakistan in the contemporary era is facing the multifaceted challenges, to mitigate these challenges Pakistan’s threat perception has evolved significantly which has paved the way for the strategy that takes care of not only internal challenges but also threat posed on the external front. The dynamics of internal and external challenges converge somewhere on the spectrum of international engagement. Keeping in view the “Theory of Alliance Formation” and incipient concept of strategic partnership, Pakistan may facilitate its image in the international arena by yielding strategic partnership and not alliance.
The dynamics of international politics and international relations of the contemporary world are in flux and need to be refined in accordance with the prevailing milieu and so are the terminologies used to define those dynamics. In this era of globalization, the conflicts or problems are not restricted to particular state hence, the states collaborate with each other to safeguard their interests. The cooperation between states may have different forms, it may be alliance, partnership, alignment, coalitions, entente or bandwagoning. The nature of the cooperation however, depends on the interests of the state and the prevailing domestic, regional and ultimately the global environment.
Arnold Wolfer defines an alliance as “a promise of mutual military assistance between two or more sovereign states” that are usually formed against the common threat or adversary. In many other cases it may be a formal agreement between two or more states for mutual support in case of war. Contemporary alliances provide for combined action on the part of two or more independent states if anyone of the alliance is attacked by another state or coalition.
Whereas strategic partnership is defined by Lucyna Czechowska in “The concept of strategic partnership as an input in the modern alliance theory”. This definition implies that the strategic partnership, despite its popularity in the practice of modern diplomacy has not yet been taken through a reliable theoretical analysis and is often confused with the concept of alliance. Strategic partnership is “a bilateral relation, characterized by the institutional flexibility, exceptional closeness and intensiveness of relations between states while preserving the legal sovereignty. The parties are however convinced about the integrity of their strategic goals, and therefore decide to cooperate on the long-term basis to implement them”. In simple words strategic partnership is a long-term cooperation between states or state and supranational entity based on political, economic, social and historical factors.
The Strategic partnership is not meant to be formed against particular state rather it is a win- win situation for the partners, where they get benefited from the expertise of each other. Some social scientists highlight the character of bilateral voluntary in this relationship, whereas others propagates the character of the mutual dependency, in which each of the subject has an advantage over the other in some fields of cooperation but the differences between the potentials do not surpass the level that could inevitably lead to the unilateral supremacy. The Strategic Partnership has three main conditions to fulfill; firstly, the partners’ relations should validate enclosed relations through frequent high level meeting, economic relations, high trade, and significant investment. Secondly, there should an advanced institutionalization of mutual relations between partners, both on interstate and inter-human level. Thirdly, is the nationwide sympathies that lead to the creation of relations similar to human friendship, based on trust and loyalty.
Taking help from the above mentioned theoretical background it can be infer out that alliance are always formed between the states either against the prevailing or perceived threat and is quite static in nature. Whereas strategic partnership can be formed between the states or with the supranational organizations for the mutual good and is not targeted against any party.
Alliance is usually state centric having realpolitik objectives based on the realistic approach and ignores the modern notion of security that is “human security”. However, the strategic partnership encompasses the realistic elements as well as liberalistic impressions hence provide the border spectrum of the security, including the human security dimension in the equation. Strategic Partnership keeps the options of cooperation open for the partners whereas alliance narrow downs the options as the enemy of the ally is your enemy. The nature of the alliance is ad hoc as it either vanishes or becomes irrelevant with changing dynamics of threats. In case of Soviet-Afghan war Pakistan was an ally of the US but after the disintegration of Soviet Union the alliance disappeared leaving Pakistan in uncertain situation. Now, in war against terrorism, same thing is happening again due to the shallowness of the relations in form of alliance. If there would have been a partnership between the US and Pakistan the “complex interdependence” might have made the situation better for Pakistan.
Strategic partnership is a better policy option for Pakistan in my opinion. In the prevailing circumstances Pakistan is at the crossroad therefore it needs to harvest strategic partnerships rather than alliance for sustainable future. In historical point of view Pakistan has always been a part of various alliances that are proved counterproductive. The worst illustration of this act is indulgence of Pakistan in Afghanistan as the US ally that took it to the point where it again had to choose the US as it ally in post 9/11 situation. This took Pakistan to a point where the internal and external security of Pakistan was highly effected and it paid heavy price of “fighting an ill-judged war of the friend’s choice”. By repeating the same mistake and expecting different results in current situation will not be a wise option for Pakistan due to many reasons. Firstly, declaring itself an ally of specific state or group of states will add Pakistan into the threat matrix of many countries which may increase the cost of cooperation. There are two levels of choices in this regard, choice at global level and choice at regional level. On global level declaring itself an ally of China would make Pakistan a direct component of the US calculations for containment of China and regional rebalancing. Moreover, in context of the US presence in Afghanistan and Trump’s new South Asian policy the situation will be further aggravated for Pakistan. On the regional level allying one Saudi Arabia against Iran or vice versa with open new challenges on internal and external front. Secondly, if Pakistan go for alliance formation it will have to leave the certain options and that may leave the “diplomatic vacuum” for hostile states. Thirdly, Pakistan is already fighting on internal front against terrorism and forging alliance will make it obligatory to respond against any threat to the ally that could cause the “military overstretching”. Finally, it may make its own faultline more vulnerable to the international issues and players.
Nevertheless, keeping in view our domestic realities, regional challenges and global transitions the better option for Pakistan is to form strategic partnerships. The best strategy for Pakistan is to get benefits of the opportunities available and to get itself out of the vicious circle of the military coalitions.

The writer is student of M.Phil in Department of Peace and Conflict Studies of National Defence University, Islamabad.

xosotin chelseathông tin chuyển nhượngcâu lạc bộ bóng đá arsenalbóng đá atalantabundesligacầu thủ haalandUEFAevertonfutebol ao vivofutemaxmulticanaisonbetbóng đá world cupbóng đá inter milantin juventusbenzemala ligaclb leicester cityMUman citymessi lionelsalahnapolineymarpsgronaldoserie atottenhamvalenciaAS ROMALeverkusenac milanmbappenapolinewcastleaston villaliverpoolfa cupreal madridpremier leagueAjaxbao bong da247EPLbarcelonabournemouthaff cupasean footballbên lề sân cỏbáo bóng đá mớibóng đá cúp thế giớitin bóng đá ViệtUEFAbáo bóng đá việt namHuyền thoại bóng đágiải ngoại hạng anhSeagametap chi bong da the gioitin bong da lutrận đấu hôm nayviệt nam bóng đátin nong bong daBóng đá nữthể thao 7m24h bóng đábóng đá hôm naythe thao ngoai hang anhtin nhanh bóng đáphòng thay đồ bóng đábóng đá phủikèo nhà cái onbetbóng đá lu 2thông tin phòng thay đồthe thao vuaapp đánh lô đềdudoanxosoxổ số giải đặc biệthôm nay xổ sốkèo đẹp hôm nayketquaxosokq xskqxsmnsoi cầu ba miềnsoi cau thong kesxkt hôm naythế giới xổ sốxổ số 24hxo.soxoso3mienxo so ba mienxoso dac bietxosodientoanxổ số dự đoánvé số chiều xổxoso ket quaxosokienthietxoso kq hôm nayxoso ktxổ số megaxổ số mới nhất hôm nayxoso truc tiepxoso ViệtSX3MIENxs dự đoánxs mien bac hom nayxs miên namxsmientrungxsmn thu 7con số may mắn hôm nayKQXS 3 miền Bắc Trung Nam Nhanhdự đoán xổ số 3 miềndò vé sốdu doan xo so hom nayket qua xo xoket qua xo so.vntrúng thưởng xo sokq xoso trực tiếpket qua xskqxs 247số miền nams0x0 mienbacxosobamien hôm naysố đẹp hôm naysố đẹp trực tuyếnnuôi số đẹpxo so hom quaxoso ketquaxstruc tiep hom nayxổ số kiến thiết trực tiếpxổ số kq hôm nayso xo kq trực tuyenkết quả xổ số miền bắc trực tiếpxo so miền namxổ số miền nam trực tiếptrực tiếp xổ số hôm nayket wa xsKQ XOSOxoso onlinexo so truc tiep hom nayxsttso mien bac trong ngàyKQXS3Msố so mien bacdu doan xo so onlinedu doan cau loxổ số kenokqxs vnKQXOSOKQXS hôm naytrực tiếp kết quả xổ số ba miềncap lo dep nhat hom naysoi cầu chuẩn hôm nayso ket qua xo soXem kết quả xổ số nhanh nhấtSX3MIENXSMB chủ nhậtKQXSMNkết quả mở giải trực tuyếnGiờ vàng chốt số OnlineĐánh Đề Con Gìdò số miền namdò vé số hôm nayso mo so debach thủ lô đẹp nhất hôm naycầu đề hôm naykết quả xổ số kiến thiết toàn quốccau dep 88xsmb rong bach kimket qua xs 2023dự đoán xổ số hàng ngàyBạch thủ đề miền BắcSoi Cầu MB thần tàisoi cau vip 247soi cầu tốtsoi cầu miễn phísoi cau mb vipxsmb hom nayxs vietlottxsmn hôm naycầu lô đẹpthống kê lô kép xổ số miền Bắcquay thử xsmnxổ số thần tàiQuay thử XSMTxổ số chiều nayxo so mien nam hom nayweb đánh lô đề trực tuyến uy tínKQXS hôm nayxsmb ngày hôm nayXSMT chủ nhậtxổ số Power 6/55KQXS A trúng roycao thủ chốt sốbảng xổ số đặc biệtsoi cầu 247 vipsoi cầu wap 666Soi cầu miễn phí 888 VIPSoi Cau Chuan MBđộc thủ desố miền bắcthần tài cho sốKết quả xổ số thần tàiXem trực tiếp xổ sốXIN SỐ THẦN TÀI THỔ ĐỊACầu lô số đẹplô đẹp vip 24hsoi cầu miễn phí 888xổ số kiến thiết chiều nayXSMN thứ 7 hàng tuầnKết quả Xổ số Hồ Chí Minhnhà cái xổ số Việt NamXổ Số Đại PhátXổ số mới nhất Hôm Nayso xo mb hom nayxxmb88quay thu mbXo so Minh ChinhXS Minh Ngọc trực tiếp hôm nayXSMN 88XSTDxs than taixổ số UY TIN NHẤTxs vietlott 88SOI CẦU SIÊU CHUẨNSoiCauVietlô đẹp hôm nay vipket qua so xo hom naykqxsmb 30 ngàydự đoán xổ số 3 miềnSoi cầu 3 càng chuẩn xácbạch thủ lônuoi lo chuanbắt lô chuẩn theo ngàykq xo-solô 3 càngnuôi lô đề siêu vipcầu Lô Xiên XSMBđề về bao nhiêuSoi cầu x3xổ số kiến thiết ngày hôm nayquay thử xsmttruc tiep kết quả sxmntrực tiếp miền bắckết quả xổ số chấm vnbảng xs đặc biệt năm 2023soi cau xsmbxổ số hà nội hôm naysxmtxsmt hôm nayxs truc tiep mbketqua xo so onlinekqxs onlinexo số hôm nayXS3MTin xs hôm nayxsmn thu2XSMN hom nayxổ số miền bắc trực tiếp hôm naySO XOxsmbsxmn hôm nay188betlink188 xo sosoi cầu vip 88lô tô việtsoi lô việtXS247xs ba miềnchốt lô đẹp nhất hôm naychốt số xsmbCHƠI LÔ TÔsoi cau mn hom naychốt lô chuẩndu doan sxmtdự đoán xổ số onlinerồng bạch kim chốt 3 càng miễn phí hôm naythống kê lô gan miền bắcdàn đề lôCầu Kèo Đặc Biệtchốt cầu may mắnkết quả xổ số miền bắc hômSoi cầu vàng 777thẻ bài onlinedu doan mn 888soi cầu miền nam vipsoi cầu mt vipdàn de hôm nay7 cao thủ chốt sốsoi cau mien phi 7777 cao thủ chốt số nức tiếng3 càng miền bắcrồng bạch kim 777dàn de bất bạion newsddxsmn188betw88w88789bettf88sin88suvipsunwintf88five8812betsv88vn88Top 10 nhà cái uy tínsky88iwinlucky88nhacaisin88oxbetm88vn88w88789betiwinf8betrio66rio66lucky88oxbetvn88188bet789betMay-88five88one88sin88bk88xbetoxbetMU88188BETSV88RIO66ONBET88188betM88M88SV88Jun-68Jun-88one88iwinv9betw388OXBETw388w388onbetonbetonbetonbet88onbet88onbet88onbet88onbetonbetonbetonbetqh88mu88Nhà cái uy tínpog79vp777vp777vipbetvipbetuk88uk88typhu88typhu88tk88tk88sm66sm66me88me888live8live8livesm66me88win798livesm66me88win79pog79pog79vp777vp777uk88uk88tk88tk88luck8luck8kingbet86kingbet86k188k188hr99hr99123b8xbetvnvipbetsv66zbettaisunwin-vntyphu88vn138vwinvwinvi68ee881xbetrio66zbetvn138i9betvipfi88clubcf68onbet88ee88typhu88onbetonbetkhuyenmai12bet-moblie12betmoblietaimienphi247vi68clupcf68clupvipbeti9betqh88onb123onbefsoi cầunổ hũbắn cáđá gàđá gàgame bàicasinosoi cầuxóc đĩagame bàigiải mã giấc mơbầu cuaslot gamecasinonổ hủdàn đềBắn cácasinodàn đềnổ hũtài xỉuslot gamecasinobắn cáđá gàgame bàithể thaogame bàisoi cầukqsssoi cầucờ tướngbắn cágame bàixóc đĩaAG百家乐AG百家乐AG真人AG真人爱游戏华体会华体会im体育kok体育开云体育开云体育开云体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育欧宝体育ob体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育开云体育开云体育棋牌棋牌沙巴体育买球平台新葡京娱乐开云体育mu88qh88

Leave a Reply