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Hurdles and barriers in the way of progressive Pakistan

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The creation of Pakistan, as the largest Muslim state in the world, is a significant event of the 20th century. It’s an immortal feat of the Quaid-e-azam that he united the largest Muslim population of South Asia and made them a nation, established a separate sovereign state and embarked upon a mission to promote values and ideals. Pakistan enjoys a unique and important geographical and political position in the world, besides being an important state in the Muslim world.
The coming of Muslims had a profound effect on all aspects of life in South Asia such as civilization influence, political influence , social influence, cultural and religious influence as well, Muslims created conditions most conducive for the growth of culture and civilization, they maintained peace , law and order. It comprehensively changed the old and political system and society and laid foundations of a new system based on justice and equality.
The unique and geographical location of Pakistan has helped in the historical evolution of its culture which is so visible throughout the long and arduous cultural march of thousands of years. Our inclinations and yearnings , our arts, handicrafts , ways of living , dress, food and like still reflect certain common characteristics which could be identified with vision and vigour in true historic perspective.
It is important to mention and point out the spectacular services of Muslims in South Asia, before the advent of Islam, South Asia was divided in many small kingdoms and South Asia had thus fallen into a political turmoil and instability which adversely affected the progress of society. Buddhism was the main religion in the history of South Asia, the Hindu rulers were the zealous supporters of Hinduism , they troubled and tortured the followers of Buddhism, the Hindu society was based on social injustice which imposed very strict restrictions on lower castes. Hindu society , as a whole, was divided into four classes , each class termed as a caste . The caste system was a rigid and immutable structure of society. Brahmins formed the religious class and, therefore, was very powerful and influential. Brahmins were experts in the Vedic knowledge and performance of religious rituals. They were held in high esteem and treated as pious men. The security of the country was in the hands of Kshatriyas who maintained law and order and defended the people and the state. Both these castes enjoyed high status and considerable influence. The remaining two castes, the Vaishyas and the Shudras, were leading a miserable and wretched life. They had no basic rights. Even in the eyes of law, they weren’t equal to the people of upper castes. If a Shudar heard the words of Holy Vedas , they, as a punishment, put molten lead into their ears . Shudras usually lived outside the four walls of the city. There were no inter-marriages among the different castes. Castes were hereditary, therefore, there was no way out of it. Once born a Shudra, always a Shudra. Intolerance and narrow-mindedness had plagued the Hindu society. Women were given the lowest position. A widow was never allowed to marry again. It was a common practice for the wife to be burnt alive along with the dead body of her husband. This system was called “Satti”. In Spite of all this, the main feature of Pakistani culture is its islamic shade and colour. Islam denies the superiority of any people on the grounds of race, caste, colour and language or geographical location. Man holds a pivotal position in the Pakistani society, he is the head of the family, the genealogy is paternal. Alongside man, a woman too enjoys important status in Pakistani society, she enjoys the right to acquire education, own and hold property , enter into business and has her share in the inheritance.
Pakistan became a reality of life, but unfortunately, it was entrapped in many troubles and difficulties. The standard of living of the people of Pakistan as compared to the developed countries is very low.
The first year of Pakistan’s history as an independent state was the period of extreme political disturbance, violence and cruelty, the Muslims of India had achieved their independence after a long and untiring struggle. They had sacrificed their lives and properties and half a million had been taken as prisoners. Nearly half a million had to leave their homes to seek refuge. This dark and barbaric period was a terrible period for Muslims of India.The great wars of the world were won only because of the extreme sense of patriotism, only those nations in the world survive and distinguish themselves , whose citizens keep a high and a very positive sense of patriotism.
The initial problems of the establishment of Pakistan were the administrative, refugee problem, distribution of assets and armed forces personnel assets, river water and the problem of accession of states and the other one which is not even exposed is the education problem of Pakistan. Education is an effective vehicle of expression of the conscious mind. The gender discrimination in Pakistan also shape poverty in the country. The facilities for housing, education and health are inadequate. The literacy rate is low , low savings and low investments are the main hurdles in the way of progress. The population growth rate , in comparison to the available resources, is very high. The natural and human resources of Pakistan are vast. There are numerous social, economic and International hurdles which hamper the efforts of exploring and exploiting these resources. With the help of adequate and effective economic planning, many financial obstacles could be removed. Taking advantage from the experiences of developed countries, Pakistan too is striving hard to get rid of the economic and financial stringencies through economic planning and development in science and technology. Human and material resources could be used in a better way through economic planning. Thus, targets fixed for economic and social welfare could be achieved. Economy of a state is just like a living body. There are many aspects such as agriculture, industry trade and commerce, sources of transportation and communications, constructions, electricity and gas, housing , sanitation, health, etc.
Economy works just like an integrated whole. By the end of 1990s, the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s social and economic resources for development emerged as Pakistan’s foremost developmental problem. Corruption and political instabilities such as various separatist movements in Balochistan and Waziristan resulted in reduction of business confidence, deterioration of economic growth, reduced public expenditure , poor delivery of public services, and undermining of the rule of law. The perceived security threat on the border with India has dominated Pakistan’s culture and has led to the domination of the military in politics , excessive spending on defense at the expense of social sectors and the erosion of law and order.
At the time of establishment of Pakistan the economy of the country was in bad shape. The overall facilities and opportunities were very limited. While economic vulnerability is a key factor in the rise of poverty in Pakistan, vulnerability also arises from social powerlessness , political disenfranchisement, and ill-functioning. Some other causes of vulnerability in Pakistan are the everyday harassment by corrupt government officials, as well as their underperformance, exclusion and denial of basic rights to many in Pakistan. Also, lack of inadequate health care by the state lead the poor to seek private sources, which are expensive, but still preferable to the possibility of medical malpractice and being given expired medicines in state run medical facilities. The health and average age of a citizen of Pakistan as compared to the developed nations is very low , the basic reason is that we get incomplete and insufficient food. The medical facilities too are inadequate, the bad conditions of health are due to economic poverty, inadequate food, absence of sanitation and unequal distribution of medical facilities.
Pakistan is home to a large feudal landholding system where landholding families hold thousands of acres and do little work in the agriculture themselves. They enlist the services of their serfs to perform the labor of the land. The landlord’s position of power allows them to exploit the only resource the poor can possibly provide is their own labor.
The methods of agriculture were old. Use of machinery in agriculture was negligible. There were industries only in name. There was no organised fiscal system to pool the savings and invest in the productive ventures. The resources for communications, transportation and information were limited. Pakistan began its economic journey under such dismal circumstances.
The rise of poverty in the country has been correlated with the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in many parts of the country. Madrassa education is offered on the pretext that they provide better education than the high schools. They study in a religious environment that has been radicalized by the world-sponsored exposure of the “Holy Jihad” in Afghanistan.
As a result, Islamic political parties have become more powerful in Pakistan and have considerable sympathy among the poor. This phenomenon is also pronounced now, the clergy have become more powerful in Pakistan and have considerable sympathy among the poor.
In order to develop human resources and make profound progress in social and economic fields, it is imperative to invest considerable amounts in the education sector. Education is the third eye of a man. Education is only the weapon by which one can fight and conquer the battle of life. Education has been a very essential part of the different civilizations of the world. It is necessary to focus on the system of education in Pakistan; and how long this department has been a victim of negligence.
In Pakistan, unfortunately the people have been introduced to double standards of education. The one, which prevails throughout the country, is related to the public sector and the other is an outcome of private investors. The education system in Pakistan faced enormous problems after independence, since independence the contribution imparted by this sector is a little bit worth to be mentioned. The result produced by the sector is very poor and the quantity has outdone quality as far as the contribution and creating an atmosphere of frustration among the young ones. Parents are scared about their children and they even don’t allow their children to be admitted in public sector school, they prefer their child to get education in the private sector as it suits them more. This doesn’t mean that public sector schools aren’t producing the cream of the future, most of our geniuses and sages who are imparting their valuable services are the outcome of public sector schools. The only submitted reason by their parents is lack of management in public sector schools. The relationship between teacher and student is sacred, the behaviour of teachers in the private school is quite frank and the student can come in direct contact with their teachers. The curriculum board has been established but it has allowed the private sector to run its own syllabus. Now, the degrees are the same but the scope of knowledge obtained by the two is too different to be compared. Here, students face manu complications by studying under different curricula. This has created a big rift between the two sectors.
There are enormous causes for the downfall of education in Pakistan which are :
Economic negligence: Since its inception, Pakistan has remained a weak economy. The conflict between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir issue has hardly allowed the governments to consider and allocate funds in budget for other sectors, education isn’t an exception in this regard.
Political negligence: “if you want to destroy the future of any nation , no need to wage war with them; defunct their education, they will no more live on the map of the world.” No politician has paid attention in improving the standard of education so far, as far as the question of history of development of education in Pakistan is concerned.
In the case of Sindh, in early 1970s, lingual riots took place and a new cancer of copy culture was introduced and boosted up by politicians to prevail among the people. No official steps were taken in curbing this fatal disease.
Non professional induction of staff: it has been a dilemma of our educational system that it has embodied irrelevancy in inducting its staff; as it has been generally observed that if a person has done specialization in some particular subject but he seems to be teaching something else. More openly, if someone has got his/her masters in English Literature, he seems to be teaching Mathematics. On the other hand Nepotism is kept on priority while inducting staff, this has made impotent the working format of the education system, ministers choose their relatives for induction without thinking that either they could serve better or will create complications for others.
Misconception of purpose: It’s also a dreadful fact that today’s young ones have changed their motives pertaining to acquiring education. Actually, “the education should be for the purpose of getting education” as it has been wisely said; but, we have changed the slogan, “education should be for the purpose of getting jobs”.
Unemployment: unemployment is another major factor responsible for the decline of education. Country has been facing huge economical setbacks since its independence. The poor economy of the country can’t meet at once the demand of employment of the country men at once. The disappointed youth, keeping their degrees in hand , wander in search of a job but ‘No-Vacancy’ sign boards inflate their disappointment.
Agriculture sector is the most important of the economy of Pakistan as it directly and indirectly provides a source of livelihood for 65% of the people who live in villages , the agriculture sector produces food for the entire populace. It also provides raw material for many industries in the country.
Industries are very important for the progress of any developing country. Industrial development paves the way for the progress of other sectors of economy. In Pakistan , industrial development has made rapid progress after economic planning was initiated in 1955, but there is still a need to improve the quality of industrial goods. For years economists thought that countries throughout the world would follow the same basic pattern for economic development. It was thought that with some initial capital investment , nations would continue on a path from pre-industrial agrarian societies to industrialization. However, many today hold that these theories are highly misleading when they are applied to developing nations today. The situation faced by developing nations today is very different than those faced by the developed nations when they were going through economic development. Among the new realities facing developing nations are a much larger population, fewer natural resources, and a poorer climate. Most importantly , today’s developed nations didn’t have other powerful developed nations to contend with during their early process of development. This means that it is much more difficult for poor nations today to achieve economic development.
Rural development is of great importance for any developing economy , due to rural development, the majority of the people living there would benefit from the economic development opportunities which in turn would increase the standard of their living, and this will bring a positive and pleasant change in the rural economy.
After the establishment of Pakistan the number of hospitals and dispensaries has increased considerably but its utility is limited because most of the hospitals have been established in cities. There are dispensaries in the rural areas but without doctors, because most of the doctors are reluctant to work in village dispensaries and hospitals.
The Kashmir issue is an over prolonged bone of contention between two neighboring countries and formerly part of the subcontinent. The Kashmir issue is one of the oldest unsolved world issues. Palestine and kashmir issues, today symbolize the failed diplomacy and the apathy of the world community. Due to the race in military supremacy, the two countries despite their backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance and poverty have succeeded in establishing themselves into two nuclear powers since their independence. It seems that in case of the apathy of the world community and their partiality and selfish motives the Kashmir issue can prove a hot zone for nuclear war causing an irreparable loss to the two countries in particular and the rest of the world in general. It was decided during the campaign of Pakistan, that the provinces having muslim majority should be included in Pakistan. The people of Kashmir were willing to join Pakistan but the Hindu Maharaja Gulab Singh did against the wishes of the people. The entire valley of Jammu and Kashmir with its population of 25 Lac was sold by the British to a Dogra Maharaja for 75 Lac. Pakistan took the matter to the United Nations. The United Nations appointed a commission for a peaceful settlement of the Kashmir problem. The commission presented two resolutions on August 13 , 1948 and January 5, 1949, which were re-accepted by the Indian and Pakistan governments and approved by the Security Council. The main points agreed upon were:
Cease-fire and the demarcation of the cease-fire line.
A free and impartial plebiscite in Kashmir under United Nations.
Withdrawal of forces of both the countries from Kashmir.
After the cease-fire , the Indian forces refused to withdraw from the Kashmir valley: In 1951, Dr. Graham tried to solve the problem but India rejected in February 1953. The Security Council appointed Gonar Jerring in 1957 but India didn’t agree to any proposal. At last on August 8, 1965, a National Revolutionary Council was formed in occupied Kashmir and the Mujahideen stood against Indian forces. India became so desperate and attacked Pakistan. The Pakistan Army pushed back the Indian forces in a historical way. In 1971 war, Simla agreement was written but India didn’t agree to liberate Kashmir. Now again the people of Kashmir stood up against Indian forces and they are fighting for their freedom, which India has to accord them today or tomorrow. In the words of Late General Muhammad Ayub Khan, the Ex- president of Pakistan, Kashmir is a “Time Bomb” which would explode at its proper time and that time, we are sure, has come now. Kashmir is a part and parcel of Pakistan and we can never withdraw from this right.
Because of the apathetic behaviour of the world community the masses of the region feel deprived of their right of independence and India because of its military might and influence in the world community denies their right of self-determination. The people being pushed to the wall find no option except to resist the enemy and the usurping army.
Not only this, because of India’s supremacy in media and communication, it seems to have succeeded in resisting forces to libel as Jihadis, Terrorists and Extremists. Thus the world outlook already biased to the Muslim world, has a venomous view of the Kashmir movement. In the modern times no state can live in isolation and yet fulfil and solve its problems on its own. It is due to mutual dependence that each country has to maintain relations with the other countries on a bilateral, regional and international basis.
In brief ,Kashmir movement has survived the tests of the time, the violence , the killing , raps and bullying for the last sixty years. They are as determined as on the first day of the movement.
All enemy tactics seem to have failed. The day is not far when the international conscience will realize the importance of the issue and value their prolonged struggle and invaluable sacrifices for independence.
Everyone takes things differently, so there’s room for different suggestions. The importance of education must be expounded in real terms by initiating different illiteracy and awareness programmes throughout the country. Government should spend more money for the improvement of infrastructure, education, health, industry , communication, arts and crafts and other important departments too. More institutions , hospitals and industries are needed to be established. Special attention must be paid on the development of scientific and technological advances so that the settled trend of people getting academic education may be diverted to technology. Politics must be eliminated from the education sector . Honesty of purpose and quality in work should be our motives. Education must be for the purpose of education not for getting jobs, and the more important thing is textbooks must be updated with current topics and the rapidly changing scenario of the world.