Monkeypox Virus an odd disease

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Monkeypox is a rare disease that is caused by infection with monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes variola virus (which causes smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus. More than 700 monkeypox cases globally, 21 in US: public health agency.
The US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention stated it was aware of more than 700 global cases of monkeypox, including 21 in the US, with investigations now suggesting it is spreading inside the country. Sixteen of the first 17 cases were among people who identify as men who have sex with men, according to a new CDC report, and 14 were thought to be travel associated.
All patients are in recovery or have recovered, and no cases have been fatal. Monkeypox is a rare disease that is related to but less severe than smallpox, causing a rash that spreads, fever, chills, and aches, among other symptoms. Generally confined to western and central Africa, cases have been reported in Europe since May and the number of countries affected has grown since.
Canada also released new figures, counting 77 confirmed cases almost all of them detected in Quebec province, where vaccines have been delivered. Though its new spread may be linked to particular gay festivals in Europe, monkeypox is not thought to be a sexually transmitted disease, with the main risk factor being close skin-to-skin contact with someone who has monkeypox sores.
A person is contagious until all the sores have scabbed and new skin is formed. Senior director for the White House’s global health security and biodefence division, added that 1,200 vaccines and 100 treatment courses had been delivered to US states, where they were offered to close contacts of those infected.
There are currently two authorized vaccines: ACAM2000 and JYNNEOS, which were originally developed against smallpox. Though smallpox has been eliminated, the US retains the vaccines in a strategic national reserve in case it is deployed as a biological weapon.
JYNNEOS is the more modern of the two vaccines, with fewer side effects. In late May, the CDC said it had 100 million doses of ACAM200 and 1,000 doses of JYNNEOS available, but O’Connell said the figures had shifted, though could not divulge precise numbers for strategic reasons.
The CDC has also authorized two antivirals used to treat smallpox, TPOXX and Cidofovir, to be repurposed to treat monkeypox. Anyone can get monkeypox and we are carefully monitoring for monkeypox that may be spreading in any population, including those who are not identifying as men who have sex with men A suspected case should be anyone with a new characteristic rash, or anyone who meets the criteria for high suspicion such as relevant travel, close contact, or being a man who has sex with men.
The National Institute of Health on states that no cases of monkeypox cases have yet been detected in Pakistan as it clarified that ‘news’ to the contrary circulating on social media was incorrect. The clarification from the institute comes a day after it issued an alert, calling upon national and provincial health authorities to remain on high alert for any suspected case of monkeypox.
According to the National Institute of Health on states no case of the virus has been reported in Pakistan so far and steps to pre-empt a potential outbreak in the country have already been taken, with arrangements made at all airports including medical screenings in order to identify any infected passengers.
The NIH clarifies that no case of monkeypox has yet been diagnosed in Pakistan. The situation is being closely monitored by the health authorities .As monkeypox spreads differently from Covid-19, the NIH has encouraged people to stay informed from reliable sources on the extent of the outbreak in their community (if any), its symptoms and prevention.
The NIH alert from a day ago stated that monkeypox was a rare viral zoometric disease that was caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. Although the natural reservoir of monkeypox is unknown, African rodents and non-human primates like monkeys may harbour the virus and infect people. The alert said the disease could be transmitted through contact with infected animals, humans or materials contaminated with the virus.
The virus enters the body through broken skin, the respiratory tract or the mucous membranes like the eyes, nose or mouth. The patient develops a rash within one to three days after the appearance of fever, often beginning on the face and then spreading to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include headache, muscle aches, exhaustion and lymphadenopathy.
The incubation period is usually seven to 14 days but can range from five to 21 days. The illness typically lasts for two to four weeks. 92 confirmed cases and 28 suspected cases of monkeypox have been reported from 12 member states that are not endemic for the virus.
The UN agency said, adding it will provide further guidance and recommendations in the coming days for countries on how to mitigate the spread of monkeypox.
.In recent weeks, cases have been detected in Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden as well as in the United States, Canada and Australia, raising fears the virus may be spreading. Israel also reported its first case on Saturday, signaling the virus’ spread to the Middle East.
Monkeypox is an infectious disease that is usually mild and is endemic in parts of west and central Africa. The virus can be transmitted through contact with skin lesions or droplets from a contaminated person, as well as through shared items such as bedding or towels.
Since it is spread by close contact, it can be relatively easily contained through such measures as self-isolation and hygiene.Symptoms of the rare disease include fever, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, chills, exhaustion and a chickenpox-like rash on the hands and face.
Monkeypox usually clears up after two to four weeks, according to the WHO.”Available information suggests that human-to-human transmission is occurring among people in close physical contact with cases who are symptomatic,” the agency added.
Heymann said an international committee of experts met via video conference to look at what needed to be studied about the outbreak and communicated to the public, including whether there is any asymptomatic spread, who are at most risk, and the various routes of transmission.
He said close contact was the key transmission route, as lesions typical of the disease are very infectious. For example, parents caring for sick children are at risk, as are health workers, which are why some countries have started inoculating teams treating monkeypox patients using vaccines for smallpox, a related virus.
There is no specific treatment but vaccination against smallpox has been found to be about 85 per cent effective in preventing monkeypox.Many of the current cases have been identified at sexual health clinics.

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