Here are some Refrences of eleven parts:
1. “Let us now consider the residue of each of these products; it consists of the same unsubstantial reality in each, a mere congelation of homogenous human labour, of labour power expanded with regard to the mode of its expenditure. All that these things now tell us is, that human labour power has been expended in their production, that human labour is embodied in them. When looked at as crystals of this social substance, common to them all, they are-Values.”
2. “We have seen that when commodities are exchanged, their exchange value manifests itself as something totally independent of their use value. But if we extract from their use value, their remains their value as efined above. Therefore, the common substance that manifests itself in the exchange value of commodities, whenever they are exchanged, is their value.”
3. “Huva Hai PunjayeFawlaadJaari,
Khari daro Naya Akhbaar Dekho.
Naya Akhbaar ye Gulzar Dekho.
Suna do Misraye Tarikh AeyDaagh,
Yeah Lo Akhbaar Jauhar Daar Dekho.”
Jis Se Saara Hind WaqifeKaar Hai.
Ghair Se Nafrat Na Apnu Se Bighaad,
ApneBeghaane ka Har Dum Yaar Hai.
Who Latayif Hai KehPadhte Hai Jinhe,
Kyu Na Nazmwa Nasar Ka Charcha Rahe,
Jab Editor Nazim WaSarshaar Hai.”
5. “The Two Factors of a Commodity: Use-Value and Value (The Substance of Value and the Magnitude of Value):The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as “an immense accumulation of commodities,” its unit being a single commodity. Our investigation must therefore begin with the analysis of a commodity.
A commodity is, in the first place, an object outside us, a thing that by its properties satisfies human wants of some sort or another. The nature of such wants, whether, for instance, they spring from the stomach or from fancy, makes no difference. Neither are we here concerned to know how the object satisfies these wants, whether directly as means of subsistence, or indirectly as means of production.
Every useful thing, as iron, paper, &c., may be looked at from the two points of view of quality and quantity. It is an assemblage of many properties, and may therefore be of use in various ways. To discover the various uses of things is the work of history. So, also is the establishment of socially-recognized standards of measure for the quantities of these useful objects. The diversity of these measures has its origin partly in the diverse nature of the objects to be measured, partly in convention.
The utility of a thing makes it a use value. But this utility is not a thing of air. Being limited by the physical properties of the commodity, it has no existence apart from that commodity. A commodity, such as iron, corn, or a diamond, is therefore, so far as it is a material thing, a use value, something useful. This property of a commodity is independent of the amount of labour required to appropriate its useful qualities. When treating of use value, we always assume to be dealing with definite quantities, such as dozens of watches, yards of linen, or tons of iron. The use values of commodities furnish the material for a special study, that of the commercial knowledge of commodities. Use values become a reality only by use or consumption: they also constitute the substance of all wealth, whatever may be the social form of that wealth. In the form of society, we are about to consider, they are, in addition, the material depositories of exchange value.”
6. “Exchange value, at first sight, presents itself as a quantitative relation, as the proportion in which values in use of one sort are exchanged for those of another sort, a relation constantly changing with time and place. Hence exchange value appears to be something accidental and purely relative, and consequently an intrinsic value, i.e., an exchange value that is inseparably connected with, inherent in commodities, seems a contradiction in terms.7 Let us consider the matter a little more closely.”
7. “A given commodity, e.g., a quarter of wheat is exchanged for x blacking, y silk, or z gold, &c. – in short, for other commodities in the most different proportions. Instead of one exchange value, the wheat has, therefore, a great many. But since x blacking, y silk, or z gold &c., each represents the exchange value of one quarter of wheat, x blacking, y silk, z gold, &c., must, as exchange values, be replaceable by each other, or equal to each other. Therefore, first: the valid exchange values of a given commodity express something equal; secondly, exchange value, generally, is only the mode of expression, the phenomenal form, of something contained in it, yet distinguishable from it.”
Here are some Refrences of eleven parts: