Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century
Part – 7
Adopted at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on November 11, 2021
12. Upholding the One Country, Two Systems policy and promoting national reunification
After their return to the motherland, Hong Kong and Macao were reincorporated into the national governance system and embarked on a broad path of complementarity and common development with other parts of the country. The practice of One Country, Two Systems has been a resounding success. However, due to a variety of complicated factors both at home and abroad, anti-China activities aimed at destabilizing Hong Kong ran rampant for a period of time, posing serious challenges to Hong Kong.
The Central Committee has underscored the need to fully, firmly, and accurately implement the One Country, Two Systems policy and to uphold and improve the systems of the policy. It has taken steps to ensure law-based governance, maintain constitutional order as outlined in the Constitution and the basic laws, and enforce the central government’s overall jurisdiction in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions. It has also ensured resolute implementation of the principle of patriots governing Hong Kong and Macao.
Based on its assessment of the situation, the Central Committee made the important decision to enhance the central government’s exercise of overall jurisdiction over the special administrative regions in accordance with the Constitution and the basic laws of the two regions, and to improve relevant systems and mechanisms for enforcing the Constitution and the basic laws. The Central Committee has pushed for the establishment and improvement of the special administrative regions’ legal systems and enforcement mechanisms for safeguarding national security, the enactment of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), the refinement of the electoral system of the HKSAR, and the implementation of the principle of patriots governing Hong Kong. The Central Committee supported the special administrative regions in improving the oath-taking system for holders of public office. In accordance with the law, the Central People’s Government established the Office for Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the HKSAR established the Committee for Safeguarding National Security.
The central authorities have firmly supported the law-based efforts of the HKSAR to end violence and chaos and restore order, supported the chief executives and governments of Hong Kong and Macao in exercising law-based governance, taken resolute steps to stop and prevent interference in the affairs of the two special administrative regions by external forces, and cracked down on acts of separatism, subversion, infiltration, and sabotage.
The central authorities have fully supported better integration of Hong Kong and Macao into the country’s overall development as well as high-quality development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. They have supported Hong Kong and Macao in pursuing economic development and improving people’s lives, and worked to foster greater patriotism and a stronger sense of national identity among the people in Hong Kong and Macao.
These measures, which address both the symptoms and root causes of relevant issues, have helped to restore order in Hong Kong and ensure a turn for the better in the region. All this has laid a solid foundation for advancing law-based governance in Hong Kong and Macao and for securing steady and continued success of the One Country, Two Systems policy.
Resolving the Taiwan question and realizing China’s complete reunification is a historic mission and an unshakable commitment of the Party. It is also a shared aspiration of all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, and it is essential to realizing national rejuvenation.
The Party has approached cross-Strait relations in light of the changed circumstances of the times, enriched the theory on national reunification and policies and principles concerning Taiwan, and worked to keep cross-Strait relations on the right track.
Comrade Xi Jinping has put forward a series of important ideas and major policy propositions on Taiwan-related work, thus helping to develop the Party’s overall policy for resolving the Taiwan question in the new era.
We facilitated the first meeting between the leaders of the two sides since 1949, as well as direct dialogue and communication between them. Guided by the conviction that we are all of the same family, the Party has promoted peaceful development of cross-Strait relations, unveiling a host of policies for the benefit of our compatriots in Taiwan and strengthening economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation across the Strait.
Since 2016, however, the Taiwan authorities have stepped up separatist activities aimed at “Taiwan independence,” which has seriously impacted the momentum of peaceful development of cross-Strait relations. Upholding the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, we firmly oppose separatist activities seeking “Taiwan independence” and firmly oppose foreign interference. We have maintained the initiative and the ability to steer in cross-Strait relations. For realizing China’s complete reunification, time and momentum are always on our side.
It has been proven through practice that with the firm leadership of the Communist Party of China, the strong support of our great motherland, and the concerted efforts of all Chinese people, including those in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions and Taiwan, it is certain that lasting prosperity and stability will be maintained in Hong Kong and Macao, and that China’s complete reunification will become a reality.
13. Bolstering the diplomatic front
Since the launch of reform and opening up, the Party has remained committed to an independent foreign policy of peace, fostered an external environment conducive to China’s development, and made significant contributions to human progress.
In the new era, the international balance of power is undergoing profound adjustments, unilateralism, protectionism, hegemonism, and power politics are posing greater threats to world peace and development, and the backlash against globalization is growing. The world has entered a period of turbulence and transformation.
The Party Central Committee has emphasized that faced with a grave and complex international situation and unprecedented external risks and challenges, it is essential that we take into account both domestic and international imperatives, improve institutions and mechanisms for the Party’s leadership over diplomatic endeavors, strengthen top-level design on this front, and conduct strategic planning on the major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics. We must work to develop a new type of international relations, promote the building of a human community with a shared future, champion the shared human values of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy, and freedom, and steer the tide of human progress.
Keeping in mind the big picture of China’s diplomatic endeavors in the new era, the Party has focused on the main goal of achieving national rejuvenation and promoting human progress, and it has held high the banner of peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefit. It has advanced and enhanced China’s diplomatic agenda in a comprehensive, multilevel, and multifaceted way, and actively developed global partnerships.
We have worked to develop relations with other major countries and promoted coordination and cooperation between major countries. In accordance with the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness and the policy of forging friendship and partnership with our neighbors, we have deepened relations with neighboring countries, worked to cultivate their strategic support, and cooperated with them to build a community with a shared future. We have strengthened solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries with a commitment to upholding the greater good in the pursuit of shared interests and following the principles of sincerity, pragmatism, affinity, and good faith, and put in place collective cooperation mechanisms that cover all other developing countries.
The Party has stayed in constant touch with more than 500 political parties and political organizations around the world with the aim of deepening exchanges and cooperation between parties. Adapting to the growing new momentum in “going global,” we have steadily improved systems for protecting China’s overseas interests and effectively handled many risks and challenges in this regard.
China has actively participated in reform and development of the global governance system. It has worked to safeguard the international system centered on the UN, the international order underpinned by international law, and the basic norms of international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. China has upheld and practiced true multilateralism, resolutely opposed unilateralism, protectionism, hegemonism, and power politics, and worked actively to make economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced, and beneficial for all.
China has played a constructive role in the political resolution of regional and international hotspot issues, and it has been a positive force on issues such as climate change, poverty reduction, counterterrorism, cyber security, and regional security. In combating Covid-19, China has engaged in international cooperation and launched the largest global emergency humanitarian operation since the founding of the People’s Republic, providing supplies, medical support, and vaccine assistance for many countries, especially developing countries, and engaging in vaccine cooperation with a number of them. China has thus built its image as a responsible major country.
Through continued efforts, we have advanced major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics on all fronts. The concept of a human community with a shared future has become a banner leading trends of the times and human progress. China has broken new ground in its diplomatic endeavors amid profound global changes and turned crises into opportunities amid complex situations on the international stage. These efforts have resulted in a marked increase in China’s international influence, appeal, and power to shape.
In summary, since the 18th National Congress, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has led the entire Party, the military, and all Chinese people in forging ahead. The goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects has been accomplished on schedule, while the cause of the Party and the country has scored historic achievements and gone through historic changes. All this demonstrates the great vitality of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The whole Party, the armed forces, and all Chinese people are more united and inspired than ever before. We are now equipped with stronger institutions, firmer material foundations, and a more proactive mindset for realizing national rejuvenation. Through tenacious struggle, the Party and the people have shown the world that the Chinese nation has achieved the tremendous transformation from standing up and growing prosperous to becoming strong.
V. The Historical Significance of the Party’s Endeavors over the Past Century
Over the past hundred years, the Party has always stayed true to its founding mission and united and led the Chinese people in writing a magnificent chapter in the history of human development, bringing about brighter prospects than ever before for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
1. The Party’s endeavors over the past century have fundamentally transformed the future of the Chinese people.
After the advent of modern times, the Chinese people were oppressed by the three mountains of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and were denigrated as the “sick man of East Asia” by Western powers. Over the past century, the Party has led the Chinese people in undertaking great and momentous struggles. Freed from bullying, oppression, and subjugation, the people have become the masters of the country, of society, and of their own fate, while people’s democracy has developed on a constant basis. The more than 1.4 billion Chinese people have achieved moderate prosperity in all respects, and are now seeing their aspirations for a better life become a reality. Today, the Chinese people are more self-confident, self-reliant, and capable of self-improvement, and have greater ambition, grit, and determination. The tremendous strength they have accumulated over this historical process is being fully unleashed, exhibiting historic initiative and creativity never seen before. With brimming confidence, the Chinese people are now writing a great history for China’s development in the new era.
2. The Party’s endeavors over the past century have opened up the right path for achieving rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
After the advent of modern times, the Chinese nation faced a grave crisis. As it withered away in the eyes of the world, it was uncertain whether or not the splendid civilization it had created would endure. Over the past century, the Party has led the people in forging ahead persistently, opening up the right path to national rejuvenation. China has moved from a state of disunity and division to a high level of unity and solidarity, from weakness and poverty to strength and moderate prosperity in all respects, and from suffering invasion and bullying to becoming independent, self-reliant, and confident. China has completed a process of industrialization that took developed countries several centuries in the space of mere decades, bringing about the two miracles of rapid economic growth and enduring social stability. Today, the Chinese nation is a thriving nation standing tall and firm in the East.
3. The Party’s endeavors over the past century have demonstrated the strong vitality of Marxism.
Marxism has brought to light the laws governing the development of human society. It is a scientific truth for understanding and shaping the world. But to uphold and develop Marxism, Marxists from all over the world must engage in extremely strenuous and challenging work, both in theory and in practice. Over the past century, the Party has rallied under the banner of Marxism, continued to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of our times, embraced all the outstanding achievements of human society with a broad-minded perspective, and used the sound theories derived from adapting Marxism to the Chinese context to guide its great endeavors.
In China, Marxism has been fully tested as a scientific truth, its people-centered and practical nature has been brought into full play, and its open-ended nature and contemporary relevance have been fully demonstrated.
Our continued success in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of our times has enabled Marxism to take on a fresh face in the eyes of the world, and significantly shifted the worldwide historical evolution of and contest between the two different ideologies and social systems of socialism and capitalism in a way that favors socialism.
4. The Party’s endeavors over the past century have produced a profound influence on the course of world history.
The cause of the Party and the Chinese people constitutes an important part of the cause of human progress. Over the past hundred years, while pursuing happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the Party has also contributed to human progress and world harmony. It has profoundly altered the trends and landscape of world development through its unremitting efforts in self-improvement. The Party has led the people in pioneering a uniquely Chinese path to modernization, creating a new model for human advancement, and expanding the channels for developing countries to achieve modernization. This has offered a new option for countries and nations who want to accelerate development while preserving their independence. The Party has promoted the development of a human community with a shared future, and offered Chinese wisdom, Chinese solutions, and Chinese strength for addressing major issues facing humanity and for building an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys enduring peace, universal security, and common prosperity. It has thus become an important force driving human development and progress.
5. The Party’s endeavors over the past century have made the CPC a forerunner of the times.
The Party’s membership has grown from just over 50 when it was founded to more than 95 million today. Leading a country of more than 1.4 billion people, it is now the world’s largest governing party with significant global influence. Over the past hundred years, the Party has remained true to its nature and purpose, upheld its ideals and convictions, and stayed committed to its founding mission. It has bravely engaged in self-reform, and withstood all manner of risks and trials and made enormous sacrifices in the course of life-and-death battles and arduous struggles. It has forged a distinct political character and developed a long line of inspiring principles originating from its great founding spirit. The Party has preserved its advanced nature and integrity, and kept improving its governance and leadership capacity. It is now leading the Chinese people in advancing toward national rejuvenation with unstoppable momentum on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It has proven to be a great, glorious, and correct party.
VI. The Historical Experience from the Party’s Endeavors over the Past Century
Over the past century, the Party has led the people through great endeavors in which it has made breakthroughs by pushing forward, become stronger by rising above setbacks, and improved itself by reflecting on its past. In the process, it has accumulated valuable historical experience.
1. Upholding the Party’s leadership
The Communist Party of China is the central leading force of our cause. The strong leadership of the Party is the fundamental reason why the Chinese people and Chinese nation have been able to transform their fate in modern times and achieved the great success we see today. Both the facts of history and the reality of today prove that without the Communist Party of China, there would be no new China and no national rejuvenation.
To govern our Party, which is the largest in the world, and our country, which is the most populous in the world, we must uphold the Party’s overall leadership, especially the Central Committee’s centralized, unified leadership, adhere to democratic centralism, and ensure that the Party exercises overall leadership and coordination.
As long as we maintain unwavering commitment to the Party’s overall leadership, firmly uphold the core of the Party and the authority of the Central Committee, fully leverage the political strengths of Party leadership, and see that Party leadership is exercised in all aspects and stages of the Party and the country’s cause, we will be able to ensure that all Party members, the armed forces, and all Chinese people unite as one in pressing ahead.
2. Putting the people first
The Party has in the people its roots, its lifeblood, and its source of strength. The people are the greatest source of confidence for the Party in governing and rejuvenating the country. No political consideration is more important than the people; no force is more powerful than justice. The Party’s greatest political strength is its close ties with the people, while the biggest potential danger it faces as a governing party is becoming distanced from them.
The Party represents the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people. It has no special interests of its own, nor has it ever represented the interests of any individual interest group, any power group, or any privileged stratum. This is the fundamental reason why the Party has maintained its inviolable strength.
We will remain committed to the Party’s fundamental purpose of wholeheartedly serving the people, adhere to the Party’s mass line, and always be aware that this country is its people and the people are the country. We will do everything for the people and rely on them in everything we do, exercise governance on behalf of the people and on the basis of their support, and stick to the notion that development is for the people, depends on the people, and its fruits should be shared by the people. With unswerving resolve, we will pursue common prosperity for all. By doing so, our Party will be able to lead the people toward new and even greater triumphs in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Any attempt to divide the Communist Party of China from the Chinese people or to set the Chinese people against the Communist Party of China is bound to fail.
To be Continued…