Role of robotics in medical sciences

0
2130

Robotic technologies appear in many areas that directly affect patient care. They can be used to disinfect patient rooms and operating suites, reducing risks for patients and medical personnel. They work in laboratories to take samples and the to transport, analyze, and store them. This is especially good news is you have ever had blood drawn by someone who had to try several times to find a “good vein.” The robotic lab assistant can locate that vessel and draw the blood with less pain and anxiety for the patient.
Robots also prepare and dispense medications in pharmacological labs. In larger facilities robotic carts carry bed linens and even meals from floor to floor, riding elevators and maneuvering through automatic doors. There are also “gears and wires” robotic assistants that help paraplegics move and can administer physical therapy.
Robotic personal assistants can be built to look friendly and the Japanese have taken the lead on this front. One of their machines, called Paro, responds to human speech and looks like a decidedly non-threatening baby seal. Other robotic technology is humanoid and used for help with personal care, socialization and for training. One used in training emergency personnel to respond to trauma, for instance, looks like a victim who screams, bleeds and even responds to treatment. The ultimate question for robotics in healthcare is whether they will take jobs away from humans.
There are several reasons why the machines will not replace their human counterparts. For one thing, most hospitals have less than 300 beds. They simply cannot afford the technology. The automated guided vehicles require a dedicated hall or floor tracks and the installation of navigation devices throughout the facilities. Other carts work with the help of a laser-drawn map of the hospital programmed into them that includes elevators, turns and automated doors. That process is also extremely expensive. But ultimately, robotic assistants cannot replace basic human contact.
Even though the technology is expensive and some of it is years from being implemented, the use of robots is changing healthcare and-in ways we can only imagine- will continue to do so.
Robots are in use across the whole pharmaceutical supply chain, from basic research to the production of medicines, quality inspection and packaging. Robots support the discovery of vital new treatments; enable faster medical tests for patients; help pharmaceutical manufacturers to meet increasingly strict regulations for the production of medicines and maximise the efficiency of drug production. Since industrial robots have their origin in manufacturing sectors, it’s no surprise that they are most established in the manufacturing phase of the drug development lifecycle.
The technologies needed for performing repetitive tasks with high degrees of precision and accuracy are already mature. The main focus of robots in the manufacturing process is at the filling, assembly and packaging stage, where tasks include filling and labelling containers, assembling finished products such as syringes and packaging assembled products.
Brain surgery involves accessing a buried target surrounded by delicate tissue, a task that benefits from the ability for robots to make precise and accurate motions based on medical images. Thus, the first published account investigating the use of a robot in human surgery was in 1985 for brain biopsy using a computed tomography (CT) image and a stereotactic frame. In that work, an industrial robot defined the trajectory for a biopsy by keeping the probe oriented toward the biopsy target even as the surgeon manipulated the approach.
This orientation was determined by registering a preoperative CT with the robot via fiducials on a stereotactic frame attached to the patient’s skull. That project was discontinued after the robot company was bought out, due to safety concerns of the new owning company, which specified that the robot arm (54?kg and capable of making 0.5?m/s movements) was only designed to operate when separated by a barrier from people. Then in 1991, the Minerva robot (University of Lausanne, Switzerland) was designed to direct tools into the brain under real-time CT guidance. Real-time image guidance allows tracking of targets even as the brain tissue swells, sags, or shifts due to the operation. Minerva was discontinued in 1993 due to the limitation of single-dimensional incursions and its need for real-time CT.
The currently available neurosurgery robots exhibit a purpose similar to historical systems, namely, image-guided positioning/orientation of cannulae or other tools. The NeuroMate (by Renishaw, previously by Integrated Surgical Systems, previously by Innovative Medical Machines International) has a ConformitéEuropéenne (CE) mark and is currently used in the process for FDA clearance (the previous generation was granted FDA clearance in 1997). In addition to biopsy, the system is marketed for deep brain stimulation, stereotactic electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation, radiosurgery, and neuroendoscopy. Li et al. report in-use accuracy as submillimeter for a frame-based configuration, the same level of application accuracy as bone-screw markers with infrared tracking, and an accuracy of 1.95?mm for the frameless configuration.
The expected benefit of robot assistance in orthopedics is accurate and precise bone resection. Through good bone resection, robotic systems (can improve alignment of implant with bone and increase the contact area between implant and bone, both of which may improve functional outcomes and implant longevity. Orthopedic robots have so far targeted the hip and knee for replacements or resurfacing (the exception being the Renaissance system and its use on the spine). Initial systems required the bones to be fixed in place, and all systems use bone screws or pins to localize the surgical site.
Prior to the 1980s, surgical procedures were performed through sizable incisions through which the surgeon could directly access the surgical site. In the late 1980s, camera technology had improved sufficiently for laparoscopy (a.k.a. minimally invasive surgery), in which one or more small incisions are used to access the surgical site with tools and camera. Laparoscopy significantly reduces patient trauma in comparison with traditional “open” procedures, thereby reducing morbidity and length of hospital stay, but at the cost of increased complexity of the surgical task. Compared with open surgery, in laparoscopy the surgeon’s feedback from the surgical site is impaired (reduced visibility and cannot manually palpate the tissue) and tool control is reduced (“mirror-image” motions due to fulcrum effect and loss of degrees of freedom in tool orientation).
Robot assistance for soft-tissue surgery was first done in 1988 using an industrial robot to actively remove soft tissue during transurethral resection of the prostate as with neurosurgery, the researchers deemed use of an industrial robot in the operating room to be unsafe. The experience provided the impetus for a research system, Probot, with the same purpose
Many more medical robots are currently being researched. Such research will lead to the new capabilities of future commercial systems.
Two prominent academic robot-assisted surgical systems are currently used for research into endoscopic telesurgery: RAVEN II and MiroSurge. The RAVEN II (University of Washington and UC Santa Cruz) is a teleoperated laparoscopic system that was designed to maximize surgical performance based on objective clinical measurements. The system has two patient-side arms that are cable-driven with 7 degrees of freedom each. The arm kinematics are based on a spherical mechanism such that the tool always passes through a remote center (e.g., the insertion points for minimally invasive surgery).
The length and angles of the links were optimized to maximize performance throughout the workspace. The arms are lighter, smaller, and less expensive than current robotic systems for laparoscopy. The instrument controllers are haptic devices, allowing force feedback on the operator’s hands based on tool forces or virtual fixtures (e.g., forbidden regions) defined with respect to patient anatomy (for the impact of haptics on surgery). Teleoperation experiments have been conducted with the RAVEN, including routing the data transmission through an unmanned aircraft. In February 2012, five systems were provided to various other surgical robotics research labs to spur collaboration and further development efforts.
In another endoscopic research effort, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing MiroSurge to be highly versatile with respect to the number of surgical domains, arm-mounting locations, number of robots, different control modes (e.g., control of position versus control of force), and the ability to integrate with other technologies. The expectation is for a base robot system to hold specialized instruments, such as DLR’s MICA instrument (which is itself a robotic tool with 3 degrees of freedom and force sensing).
By using a general robotic base to hold a specialized robotic instrument that has its own motors, sensors, and control electronics, the same base system can be specialized for various procedures just by switching the instrument. The base robot, the DLR Miro, masses 10?kg with a 3?kg payload and has serial kinematics that resemble the kinematics of the human arm, with joint ranges and link lengths optimized based on certain medical procedures. Unlike the RAVEN II, the MIRO arm does not have a remote center of motion, and thus must be controlled to direct the instrument through any insertion point, but is more easily able to handle moving insertion points (e.g., through the chest wall during respiration).
Amadeus: Titan Medical Inc. is currently developing Amadeus, a four-armed laparoscopic surgical robot system, to compete with Intuitive Surgical’s da Vinci system. The Amadeus uses snakelike multiarticulatingarms for improved maneuverability, and the system is being designed to facilitate teleoperation for long-distance surgery. Human trials are planned for late 2013.
NeuroArm and MrBot: At least two renowned research systems are investigating improved MR-compatible robots. The neuroArm (University of Calgary, MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates, IMRIS) is a two-armed, MRI-guided neurosurgical robot actuated via piezoelectric motors. The neuroArm end effectors are equipped with 3 degrees of freedom optical force sensors and are accurate to tens of micrometers. The MrBot (Johns Hopkins University) is a parallel linkage arm designed for MRI-guided access of the prostate gland, actuated by novel pneumatic stepper motors for reduced MR interference.
TraumaPod: TraumaPod (highly collaborative, led by SRI International) is a semi-autonomous telerobotic surgical system designed to be rapidly deployable. The surgical cell consists of a surgical robot (da Vinci for Phase I testing), Scrub Nurse Subsystem, Tool Rack System, Supply Dispensing System, Patient Imaging System (a movable X-ray tube), predecessor of the aforementioned LS-1 (“suitcase intensive care unit”), and Supervisory Controller System. The TraumaPod has demonstrated successful teleoperation of a bowel closure and shunt placement on a phantom without a human in the surgical cell. That success implies the potential for increased automation in the operating room, though challenges were reported in sterilization, anesthesia, and robustness.
HeartLander: The heart has long been a target for surgical robots and various systems continue to investigate how best to treat cardiac diseases, particularly while the heart is beating. The HeartLander (HeartLander Surgical) is a minimally invasive robot that uses suction to crawl around the surface of the heart. The system is designed for intrapericardial drug delivery, cell transplantation, epicardial atrial ablation, and other such procedures.
Medical robotics is a young and relatively unexplored field made possible by technical improvements over the past couple of decades. Currently available systems have been available for too short time to allow long-term studies. Nor are the benefits potentially provided by medical robots fully understood. Medical robots have only passed through a few technological generations and the technology continues to change and leap into new areas. Yet by looking at the current market and representative research systems, educated guesses can be made about the impacts of robots on near-future medicine.
In surgical robotics, there has been a trend away from autonomous or even semiautonomous motions, and toward synergistic manipulation and virtual fixtures. Thus, the robot acts as a guidance tool, providing information (and possibly a physical nudge) to keep the surgeon on target. Such use requires accurate localization of the tissues in the surgical site, even as the tissues are manipulated during surgery.
Improved imaging systems (e.g., Explorer, an intraoperative soft tissue tracker by Pathfinder Therapeutics or robot compatibility with MRI or CT will provide that localization. In particular, MRI-guided robots will benefit from intraoperative 3D images with excellent soft tissue contrast and accurate registration between the tool and the tissue, thus allowing precise virtual fixtures, “snap-to” and “stand-off” behaviors. Further, such imaging will allow modeling and rapid prototyping of patient-specific templates/jigs/implants.

xosotin chelseathông tin chuyển nhượngcâu lạc bộ bóng đá arsenalbóng đá atalantabundesligacầu thủ haalandUEFAevertonfutebol ao vivofutemaxmulticanaisonbetbóng đá world cupbóng đá inter milantin juventusbenzemala ligaclb leicester cityMUman citymessi lionelsalahnapolineymarpsgronaldoserie atottenhamvalenciaAS ROMALeverkusenac milanmbappenapolinewcastleaston villaliverpoolfa cupreal madridpremier leagueAjaxbao bong da247EPLbarcelonabournemouthaff cupasean footballbên lề sân cỏbáo bóng đá mớibóng đá cúp thế giớitin bóng đá ViệtUEFAbáo bóng đá việt namHuyền thoại bóng đágiải ngoại hạng anhSeagametap chi bong da the gioitin bong da lutrận đấu hôm nayviệt nam bóng đátin nong bong daBóng đá nữthể thao 7m24h bóng đábóng đá hôm naythe thao ngoai hang anhtin nhanh bóng đáphòng thay đồ bóng đábóng đá phủikèo nhà cái onbetbóng đá lu 2thông tin phòng thay đồthe thao vuaapp đánh lô đềdudoanxosoxổ số giải đặc biệthôm nay xổ sốkèo đẹp hôm nayketquaxosokq xskqxsmnsoi cầu ba miềnsoi cau thong kesxkt hôm naythế giới xổ sốxổ số 24hxo.soxoso3mienxo so ba mienxoso dac bietxosodientoanxổ số dự đoánvé số chiều xổxoso ket quaxosokienthietxoso kq hôm nayxoso ktxổ số megaxổ số mới nhất hôm nayxoso truc tiepxoso ViệtSX3MIENxs dự đoánxs mien bac hom nayxs miên namxsmientrungxsmn thu 7con số may mắn hôm nayKQXS 3 miền Bắc Trung Nam Nhanhdự đoán xổ số 3 miềndò vé sốdu doan xo so hom nayket qua xo xoket qua xo so.vntrúng thưởng xo sokq xoso trực tiếpket qua xskqxs 247số miền nams0x0 mienbacxosobamien hôm naysố đẹp hôm naysố đẹp trực tuyếnnuôi số đẹpxo so hom quaxoso ketquaxstruc tiep hom nayxổ số kiến thiết trực tiếpxổ số kq hôm nayso xo kq trực tuyenkết quả xổ số miền bắc trực tiếpxo so miền namxổ số miền nam trực tiếptrực tiếp xổ số hôm nayket wa xsKQ XOSOxoso onlinexo so truc tiep hom nayxsttso mien bac trong ngàyKQXS3Msố so mien bacdu doan xo so onlinedu doan cau loxổ số kenokqxs vnKQXOSOKQXS hôm naytrực tiếp kết quả xổ số ba miềncap lo dep nhat hom naysoi cầu chuẩn hôm nayso ket qua xo soXem kết quả xổ số nhanh nhấtSX3MIENXSMB chủ nhậtKQXSMNkết quả mở giải trực tuyếnGiờ vàng chốt số OnlineĐánh Đề Con Gìdò số miền namdò vé số hôm nayso mo so debach thủ lô đẹp nhất hôm naycầu đề hôm naykết quả xổ số kiến thiết toàn quốccau dep 88xsmb rong bach kimket qua xs 2023dự đoán xổ số hàng ngàyBạch thủ đề miền BắcSoi Cầu MB thần tàisoi cau vip 247soi cầu tốtsoi cầu miễn phísoi cau mb vipxsmb hom nayxs vietlottxsmn hôm naycầu lô đẹpthống kê lô kép xổ số miền Bắcquay thử xsmnxổ số thần tàiQuay thử XSMTxổ số chiều nayxo so mien nam hom nayweb đánh lô đề trực tuyến uy tínKQXS hôm nayxsmb ngày hôm nayXSMT chủ nhậtxổ số Power 6/55KQXS A trúng roycao thủ chốt sốbảng xổ số đặc biệtsoi cầu 247 vipsoi cầu wap 666Soi cầu miễn phí 888 VIPSoi Cau Chuan MBđộc thủ desố miền bắcthần tài cho sốKết quả xổ số thần tàiXem trực tiếp xổ sốXIN SỐ THẦN TÀI THỔ ĐỊACầu lô số đẹplô đẹp vip 24hsoi cầu miễn phí 888xổ số kiến thiết chiều nayXSMN thứ 7 hàng tuầnKết quả Xổ số Hồ Chí Minhnhà cái xổ số Việt NamXổ Số Đại PhátXổ số mới nhất Hôm Nayso xo mb hom nayxxmb88quay thu mbXo so Minh ChinhXS Minh Ngọc trực tiếp hôm nayXSMN 88XSTDxs than taixổ số UY TIN NHẤTxs vietlott 88SOI CẦU SIÊU CHUẨNSoiCauVietlô đẹp hôm nay vipket qua so xo hom naykqxsmb 30 ngàydự đoán xổ số 3 miềnSoi cầu 3 càng chuẩn xácbạch thủ lônuoi lo chuanbắt lô chuẩn theo ngàykq xo-solô 3 càngnuôi lô đề siêu vipcầu Lô Xiên XSMBđề về bao nhiêuSoi cầu x3xổ số kiến thiết ngày hôm nayquay thử xsmttruc tiep kết quả sxmntrực tiếp miền bắckết quả xổ số chấm vnbảng xs đặc biệt năm 2023soi cau xsmbxổ số hà nội hôm naysxmtxsmt hôm nayxs truc tiep mbketqua xo so onlinekqxs onlinexo số hôm nayXS3MTin xs hôm nayxsmn thu2XSMN hom nayxổ số miền bắc trực tiếp hôm naySO XOxsmbsxmn hôm nay188betlink188 xo sosoi cầu vip 88lô tô việtsoi lô việtXS247xs ba miềnchốt lô đẹp nhất hôm naychốt số xsmbCHƠI LÔ TÔsoi cau mn hom naychốt lô chuẩndu doan sxmtdự đoán xổ số onlinerồng bạch kim chốt 3 càng miễn phí hôm naythống kê lô gan miền bắcdàn đề lôCầu Kèo Đặc Biệtchốt cầu may mắnkết quả xổ số miền bắc hômSoi cầu vàng 777thẻ bài onlinedu doan mn 888soi cầu miền nam vipsoi cầu mt vipdàn de hôm nay7 cao thủ chốt sốsoi cau mien phi 7777 cao thủ chốt số nức tiếng3 càng miền bắcrồng bạch kim 777dàn de bất bạion newsddxsmn188betw88w88789bettf88sin88suvipsunwintf88five8812betsv88vn88Top 10 nhà cái uy tínsky88iwinlucky88nhacaisin88oxbetm88vn88w88789betiwinf8betrio66rio66lucky88oxbetvn88188bet789betMay-88five88one88sin88bk88xbetoxbetMU88188BETSV88RIO66ONBET88188betM88M88SV88Jun-68Jun-88one88iwinv9betw388OXBETw388w388onbetonbetonbetonbet88onbet88onbet88onbet88onbetonbetonbetonbetqh88mu88Nhà cái uy tínpog79vp777vp777vipbetvipbetuk88uk88typhu88typhu88tk88tk88sm66sm66me88me888live8live8livesm66me88win798livesm66me88win79pog79pog79vp777vp777uk88uk88tk88tk88luck8luck8kingbet86kingbet86k188k188hr99hr99123b8xbetvnvipbetsv66zbettaisunwin-vntyphu88vn138vwinvwinvi68ee881xbetrio66zbetvn138i9betvipfi88clubcf68onbet88ee88typhu88onbetonbetkhuyenmai12bet-moblie12betmoblietaimienphi247vi68clupcf68clupvipbeti9betqh88onb123onbefsoi cầunổ hũbắn cáđá gàđá gàgame bàicasinosoi cầuxóc đĩagame bàigiải mã giấc mơbầu cuaslot gamecasinonổ hủdàn đềBắn cácasinodàn đềnổ hũtài xỉuslot gamecasinobắn cáđá gàgame bàithể thaogame bàisoi cầukqsssoi cầucờ tướngbắn cágame bàixóc đĩaAG百家乐AG百家乐AG真人AG真人爱游戏华体会华体会im体育kok体育开云体育开云体育开云体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育欧宝体育ob体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育开云体育开云体育棋牌棋牌沙巴体育买球平台新葡京娱乐开云体育mu88qh88