Educational philosophy and its objectives

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The process of education started since the birth of human beings and it was governed by the social and religious traditions of the surrounding area. In other words this process was the result of the opinions of the adult franchise. From the study of ancient history it becomes clear that the monarchs and the chiefs were the absolute rulers of the kingdoms and tribes. It was their responsibility to decide as to who will be provided education out of their subjects of all faults and which affairs were more preferable in the interest of the people and dominions States.
Like all Greece , the major problem of the other states was also the protection of their governments so such matters were selected for education and training which could help to train best and stout healthy and strong soldiers. For attaining this goal able-bodied people were trained in throwing swordsmanship and horsemanship.
In the ancient concept of education the parents of children had no right to select the courses of studies for their wards. The religious leaders of the state used to decide in the respect as they wished. The birth of a child was regarded by the ancient people to be the result of the sin which is repeatedly practiced by the children of Adam and Eve ever since these parents of mankind had been expelled from paradise. So they had developed a doctrine that these rules of sense or children should be compelled to adopt the traditions and principles framed by the religious leaders of the state.
Thus the key positions were enjoyed in public instruction by the elderly people and the teachers. The teachers were free to teach whatever they liked best and to adopt their way of teaching . No importance was attached to the inclination of the children on the intentions of their parents. Thus teaching had become totally an external action.
Education was under the control of the influential people of the society. Many prospective and promising youngsters were deprived of their right to have education; some of them remained behind due to their mental inclinations as well they had no interest in education at all . According to the old conception of education various classes of the people had special types of education for their requirements one type of education reserved for a class could not be obtained by another class otherwise a defaulter was very severely punished . As such many specular aspects come to light when we deeply study the old philosophy of education which can be summarised as follows.
= The purpose of education was considered to enable the children to act on the traditions of the class of people to which they belong. Thus the soldiers were trained for warfare businessmen while trying to conduct business and politicians were taught the principles of administration except as follows, suitable by the religious leaders, elders and the rulers of the state.
= Education was perfectly under the control of the state ,the rulers and the people of authority used to select the children to be educated in various fields are the parents had no choice to decide as to which kind of education they want to prescribe for their children selection of the type of the education for the children who was a state subject and the ruling class were used to recommend the type of education to the children which they liked. Thus in the field of education neither children nor the parents had any right to select the type of education which they desired to achieved.
= The teachers used to punish the students severly and forced the students to learn the subjects taught to them without attaining any importance to their personal feelings and inclinations e.g a coward boy was trained for warfare and train like a soldier and a brave natured boy was trying to be a businessman. Thus the students were in majority of the cases taught against their personal inclinations.
= In the field of education the teachers enjoyed the central position under the ancient philosophy of education. The teachers were all in all and they followed rigid curricula.The students had no choice to select the courses of studies for themselves even the parents could not interfere in their matters.
The concept of modern education has developed after the industrial revolution .Many scientific facts have come to the knowledge of the educationalist and also to the teachers, rulers ,parents of the students and students themselves as a result of great research work conducted in the fields of psychology ,social welfare and the sciences. Especially the research work in the field of education psychology has now proved that by neglecting the natural inclination and interest of the students they cannot be properly educated. The individual interest of the students also vary from every each other so to understand these variations in the educational interest of the students the educationalist and parents and also the policy makers and officials of education department of state have to introduce a system to analyse the students interesting scientific way they have to ascertain and psychologically about the modern trends of the students. In fact they should try to consult their interests with the national interest and the ever changing requirements of the state. Without understanding these things, parting education to students is a mere waste of time.
Under the concept of modern philosophy education is regarded to be an internal process and not an external process. Previously external process used to be followed to educate the children which used to be in effective in majority of the cases of students because such courses of education and their curricula were not in accordance with the natural temperament of the students to remove this defect in modern education the external processes moulded to have a coordination with internal process. This change results into a sort of motivation in the interest . The students look at this changed process to be in accordance with the psychological urge to learn things which are being taught to them thuss the teachers are pleased to see that the students are the displaying readiness to learn and the students feel that the teachers and teachers them the student the subject of the interest which they really wish to learn. Thus student who desired to become a doctor is taught medicine and the student who wants to become an engineer is taught engineering subjects etc.
In the modern philosophy of education no social restrictions are applied on the process of education the students are free to select their courses of studies in consultation with their parents and guardians and the parents do not force their own decisions and the students the government of the state also does not make the students to study the subject in which they are not interested . Thus the education is “student centre ” type. Further no restrictions of age , social status are also imposed on the students. No caste ,creed , colour sex considerations come in the way of students in their selection of courses of studies.
The purpose of parting with modern education is to prepare the young generation to achieve skill and craftsmanship in the field of various courses of studies of arts, science and technology befitting the needs of a nation . For this purpose a lot of research has been conducted in the fields of emotional, physical, mental and social development of the students.
The characteristics of modern philosophy of education
= In older days sons of soldiers were trained to become soldiers and the sons of the ruling class were taught the subject of politics. Thus the all classes of the people had no choice to educate their children in the various and which they wanted in accordance with the natural inclination of their progeny. Carpenter’s son could not dream to become a politician or even a soldier . Even a soldier’s son could not study politics . The class discrimination has been abolished in the concept of modern philosophy. Now a cobbler’s son can learn politics and become the ruler of his country if he gets a chance to do so . Further not all the army officers come from the lineage of big army commanders.
= In modern philosophy of education the students enjoying the fundamental right of freedom of expression. The modern student is of progressive nature. He can follow any school of thought, study any subject of his choice and express his thoughts in any field of study which is selected. No restriction whatsoever is enforced on him to follow a particular school of thought or to select any prescribed course of study against his /her will. His personal opinion may be religious and secular at present and the school of thought but it should not be anti national and it should not hurt the feelings of the members of the society.
= In modern education the students are free to conduct research in their selected fields of education and study. The door of research work in any science ,technology and art is open to all the members of the society which any concentration of caste,creed, race or financial status or even colour or sex.
= In the old philosophy of education there was no room to judge the capacity and interest of students to allow them to study the subjects of their choice. The psychological aspect of the student was totally neglected and the courses of studies were forcibly recommended to be followed. Thus a coward and was forced to become a soldier and dunce was trained to be ruler.
= Not only the selection of courses of studies has been made easy and in the process of modern education but even all the subject sciences and technologies have been made most modern simple and practical nature the knowledge of the subjects are tried to be kept always up-to-date and easily understandable so that students can adopt the profession of their choice according to their sweet will and pleasure, this quality of modern education is very much helpful in increasing the percentage of literacy in state.
The educational objectives are:
= Development of personality
= Development of thinking power
= Satisfaction of needs and interests
= Development of leadership capacity
= Development of consciousness of benevolent and cultural values
= To produce best citizens
= Creation of respectable habits
= Training to handle social responsibilities
= Promotion of the spirit of natural cooperation and help
= Preparation to lead practical life
= Development of personalities as workers
= To create the feeling of dignity of labour
= Development of economic abilities
= Professional training
= Development of spirit of patriotism
= Consciousness of values
= Sense of pride of national achievements
= Creation of sense of national service
= Creation of the spirit of universal brotherhood
= Sense of unity
= Promotion of national unity
= Establishment of literate society
= Arrangements for professional personal and technical training
= To achieve self sufficiency
= Eradication of ignorance
= Unconditional and equal chances of education.

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