Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century
Adopted at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on November 11, 2021
The Party has worked to uphold and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy, followed a correct and uniquely Chinese path to dealing with ethnic affairs, and made fostering a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation the main task in its work related to ethnic affairs. The Party has established policies for the governance of Tibet and Xinjiang in the new era, consolidated and developed socialist ethnic relations characterized by equality, solidarity, mutual assistance, and harmony, and pushed for all ethnic groups to work together in pursuit of common development and prosperity.
In line with the Party’s basic policy on religious affairs, we have upheld the principle that religions in China must be Chinese in orientation, and provided active guidance for the adaptation of religions to socialist society.
The Party has worked to build a broad united front with the goal of expanding common ground and the convergence of interests and creating a mighty force to drive our push toward national rejuvenation.
The Party has promoted reform and innovation within trade unions, Chinese Communist Youth League organizations, women’s federations, and other people’s organizations with the objectives of strengthening their political consciousness, their advanced nature, and their ability to represent the people, so that these organizations can play their role more effectively.
We have worked to promote human rights in all areas, with top priority given to safeguarding the people’s rights to subsistence and development.
Since the 18th National Congress, we have made sweeping progress in improving the institutions, standards, and procedures of China’s socialist democracy, and given better play to the strengths of the Chinese socialist political system. As a result, our political stability, unity, and dynamism have been reinforced and grown stronger.
6. Comprehensively advancing law-based governance
Since the launch of reform and opening up, the Party has upheld law-based governance and kept advancing socialist rule of law. However, we have also faced serious problems such as laws being ignored or not being strictly enforced, lack of judicial impartiality, and violations of the law going unpunished, while judicial corruption occurring from time to time. Some judicial and law-enforcement personnel have bent the law for personal gain, or even provided shelter for criminals. These phenomena have seriously undermined the authority of the law, and had a negative impact on social fairness and justice.
The Party is deeply aware that power is a double-edged sword. If it is wielded in accordance with the law and rules, it can bring benefit to the people, but if it is abused, it will invariably bring disaster to the country and the people.
The Central Committee has stressed that when the rule of law prevails, the country will prosper, but should it weaken, the country will descend into chaos. Comprehensively advancing law-based governance is an essential requirement and important guarantee for socialism with Chinese characteristics; it is also a profound revolution in China’s governance. Law-based governance and law-based exercise of state power begin with compliance with the Constitution. We must remain committed to the path of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics; implement Chinese socialist rule of law theory; pursue coordinated progress in law-based governance, law-based exercise of state power, and law-based government administration; promote integrated development of the country, the government, and society based on the rule of law; and comprehensively enhance people’s awareness of the need to respect, study, and abide by the law and their ability to apply the law.
At the fourth plenary session of the 18th Central Committee and the central conference on the rule of law, dedicated efforts were made to analyze the issue of advancing law-based governance in all respects. Top-level designs and major plans were put forward on ensuring sound legislation, strict law enforcement, impartial administration of justice, and observance of law by all. Coordinated progress was made in advancing the development of the system of laws and regulations, the system for enforcing the rule of law, the system for overseeing the rule of law, the system for guaranteeing the rule of law, and the system of Party rules and regulations.
The Party has emphasized that since the people make up the broadest and deepest foundation for comprehensively advancing law-based governance, we must ensure that their interests and wishes are reflected, their rights are protected, and their wellbeing is enhanced in every aspect throughout the entire process of law-based governance. We must protect and promote social fairness and justice, and work to ensure that the people feel fairness and justice prevails in every law, every law enforcement decision, and every judicial case.
The Party has led efforts to improve systems and mechanisms for ensuring full enforcement of the Constitution. We have established the system of pledging allegiance to the Constitution, and promoted the spirit of socialist rule of law. We have enhanced the ability of state institutions to perform their duties in accordance with the law, boosted the ability of officials at all levels to think and act under the guidance of the rule of law as they work to solve problems and promote development, and raised awareness about the rule of law throughout society.
Amendments to the Constitution have been adopted; laws including the Civil Code, the Foreign Investment Law, the National Security Law, and the Supervision Law have been formulated; revisions have been made to the Legislation Law, the National Defense Law, and the Environmental Protection Law; and legislation has been stepped up in key, emerging, and foreign-related fields. All these efforts have accelerated the improvement of the socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics, at the heart of which is the Constitution.
The Party has led efforts to deepen reform of the judicial system, with the focus on enforcement of judicial accountability, and to advance all-around reform in the judicial, procuratorial, and public security domains. Checks and oversight on law enforcement and judicial activities have been strengthened; action has been taken to educate and consolidate judicial, procuratorial, and public security personnel; unjust and erroneous rulings have been redressed in accordance with the law; and vigorous measures have been taken to punish corruption in law enforcement and judicial work. All these efforts have contributed to ensuring the justice, integrity, efficiency, and authority of law enforcement and judicial work.
Since the 18th National Congress, the system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics has constantly been improved, solid progress has been made in advancing the rule of law in China, the rule of law has played a greater role in consolidating foundations, ensuring stable expectations, and delivering long-term benefits, and the Party’s ability to lead and govern the country through law-based methods has been notably enhanced.
7. Driving cultural advancement
Since the launch of reform and opening up, the Party has attached equal emphasis to material progress and cultural-ethical progress. As a result, socialist culture has thrived, the national spirit has been lifted, and national solidarity has grown stronger. At the same time, however, misguided ideas have often cropped up, such as money worship, hedonism, ultra-individualism, and historical nihilism, online discourse has been rife with disorder, and certain leading officials have demonstrated ambiguity in their political stance and a lack of fighting spirit. These phenomena all have a serious impact on people’s thinking and the environment for public discourse.
The Party has maintained an accurate perspective on the trends of collisions taking place worldwide between different ideas and cultures, as well as of the profound changes in Chinese people’s ways of thinking. It has stressed that ideological work shapes the collective mind of a country and forges the soul of a nation, and that confidence in one’s culture, which is a broader, deeper, and more fundamental form of self-confidence, is the most essential, profound, and enduring source of strength for the development of a country and a nation. Without a thriving culture and firm confidence in it, the Chinese nation cannot achieve rejuvenation.
We must adhere to a people-centered approach in ideological work, uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics, rally public support, foster a new generation with sound values and ethics, develop Chinese culture, and build a better national image. We must have a firm hold on leadership in ideological work, develop socialist ideology that has the power to unite and inspire the people, and build China into a country with a strong socialist culture. We must ignite the cultural creativity of the whole nation, and bolster the Chinese spirit, Chinese values, and Chinese strength in order to consolidate the common ideological foundation for the concerted efforts of all Party members and all Chinese people.
With a focus on addressing the issue of lax Party leadership in the ideological sphere, the Party has replaced faulty practices with effective ones in an effort to clear up muddy waters. It has made arrangements on a number of strategic issues of guiding significance in the ideological sphere, and established and upheld a fundamental system for ensuring the guiding role of Marxism in the ideological domain. By strengthening the responsibility system for ideological work, the Party has engaged all members in improving communication and outreach. Under this system, every Party member is charged to do their best to fulfill their duties, to be proactive in their work, and to take a clear stand against erroneous views.
In intensifying its efforts to improve communication and outreach, the Party has started with the most fundamental issues. It convened a national conference on communication and outreach, as well as forums on literature and art, the Party’s press and public communications work, cybersecurity and IT application, philosophy and social sciences, and ideological and political work at institutions of higher learning. Through these events, it has clarified its principles and stance on a number of fundamental issues, distinguished right from wrong regarding theories, and kept its work on the right track. As a result, a healthy trend is gathering steam in the sphere of ideology and culture.
The Party endeavors to use its new theories to equip its members, educate the people, and guide practice. It has worked harder to study and develop Marxist theory, and made advances in constructing disciplinary, academic, and discourse systems for philosophy and social sciences with Chinese features.
The Party puts heavy emphasis on developing and creating new means of communication. It has promoted integrated development of media, and worked to strengthen the penetration and credibility of the media and its ability to guide and influence. The Central Committee has made it clear that failure in the cyberspace domain will spell disaster for the Party’s long-term governance. The Party therefore attaches great importance to the Internet as the main arena, battleground, and frontline of the ideological struggle. It has improved the leadership and management systems for the Internet, regulated the cyberspace according to the law, and strived to foster a clean online environment.
The Party has guided cultural development with the core socialist values, and paid close attention to nourishing the roots and forging the soul of our nation with advanced socialist culture, revolutionary culture, and China’s fine traditional culture. It has carried out extensive public awareness activities on socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream, promoted regular and institutionalized education on ideals and convictions, and improved the system of ideological and political work. We have established sound systems of Party and state awards and honors, instituted Martyrs’ Day, carried out initiatives to raise the public’s cultural-ethical standards, built centers for promoting cultural and ethical advancement in the new era, and nurtured a love of learning among our people.
The Party has encouraged the people to study the history of the Party, the People’s Republic of China, reform and opening up, and the development of socialism, and built the Museum of the Communist Party of China. It has also organized events to celebrate the centenary of the Party, the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic, the 90th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Liberation Army, and the 40th anniversary of the launch of reform and opening up; to commemorate the 70th anniversary of victory in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the global war against fascism; and to mark the 70th anniversary of the Chinese People’s Volunteers’ departure for Korea to resist US aggression and aid Korea. These events vividly illustrated the solidarity of our Party and our people and the strength of our country and our military while championing China’s underlying values and spreading positive energy throughout society.
Putting social benefits first while also stressing economic returns, the Party has advanced all-around development of cultural programs and industries. Art and literature are flourishing, and public cultural services have improved, providing people with richer cultural nourishment.
The Central Committee has stressed that China’s fine traditional culture is a prominent strength of our nation that enables us to gain a firm footing amidst global cultural interaction. We must adapt to new conditions so that we can carry on our traditional culture in the new era. For this purpose, we have launched projects to pass on and develop our fine cultural traditions, promoted their creative transformation and development, raised public awareness of the importance of preserving our cultural heritage, and stepped up preservation efforts.
We have accelerated work to strengthen our international communication capacity, with the goal of telling well China’s stories and the Party’s stories, making China’s voice heard, and promoting exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations. Our cultural soft power and the appeal of Chinese culture have increased significantly.
Since the 18th National Congress, we have seen a sweeping and fundamental shift in the ideological domain, a notable boost in confidence in our culture among all Party members and all Chinese people, and a major increase in cohesiveness throughout society. All of this has provided solid ideological guarantees and powerful inspiration for opening up new horizons for the cause of the Party and the country in the new era.
8. Promoting social advancement
Since the launch of reform and opening up, the Chinese people have witnessed notable improvements in their living standards and in social governance. Meanwhile, in pace with the changing times and social progress, they have developed an increasingly strong desire for a better life and growing demands for democracy, rule of law, fairness, justice, security, and a better environment.
The Central Committee has stressed that satisfying the people’s aspirations for a better life is the goal of all the Party’s work; that improving the people’s wellbeing is an essential requirement in the Party’s commitment to serving the public good and governing for the people; that ensuring a better life for the people is the immutable aim of all the Party’s endeavors; and that addressing inadequacies in support for people’s basic needs and solving the most pressing difficulties of great concern to the people are urgent tasks in advancing social development.
We must, therefore, strengthen social development by laying stress on ensuring and improving people’s wellbeing. We must do everything within our capacity and keep working year by year to tackle one issue after another. In particular, we need to make steady progress in ensuring people’s access to childcare, education, employment, medical services, elderly care, housing, and social assistance, and we need to strengthen social governance by developing new practices, so that the people will have a more robust, solid, and sustainable sense of fulfillment, happiness, and security.
In the push to moderate prosperity, the Party was deeply aware that raising the living standards of rural residents was critical. Only by securing a victory in the ?ght against poverty, which is a fundamental task in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, could China fulfill its First Centenary Goal. Therefore, extraordinary moves were needed to advance the fight against poverty with greater resolve, more targeted approaches, and more powerful measures.
To this end, the Party introduced a strategy of targeted poverty alleviation and set the objectives of guaranteeing food and clothing needs and ensuring access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing for the impoverished rural population. It applied a responsibility system whereby heads of Party and government bodies pledged themselves to win the fight against poverty in their localities. The whole Party, the entire nation, and all sectors of society were mobilized in the most extensive and aggressive anti-poverty campaign in human history. As they tackled the most daunting challenges and surmounted the most difficult obstacles, the Chinese people forged a great spirit in the fight against poverty.
Since the 18th National Congress, 832 counties, 128,000 villages, and nearly 100 million rural residents that fell below the current poverty line have been lifted out of poverty. China has thus achieved the poverty reduction target laid out in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ten years ahead of schedule, brought about a historic resolution to the problem of absolute poverty in China, and created a miracle in the human history of poverty reduction.
In 2020, facing the sudden outbreak of the novel coronavirus epidemic, the Central Committee responded calmly and decisively, and set out the general requirements to stay confident, stand united, and adopt a science-based approach and targeted measures. With the commitment to putting the people and human life above all else, the Central Committee led the whole nation in an all-out people’s war to curb the spread of the virus. It made well-conceived plans for the battles to defend Hubei Province and its capital city Wuhan and pooled nationwide resources to save lives on an unprecedented scale. It worked to ensure constant vigilance against imported cases and domestic resurgences, coordinated the Covid-19 response with economic and social development, and thus protected the health and safety of the people to the greatest extent possible. These efforts enabled China to lead the world in getting the epidemic under control, restarting work and production, and resuming economic and social development. With this major strategic success through our response, we have forged a great spirit in the fight against Covid-19.
To ensure and improve people’s wellbeing, the Party has introduced a range of major measures concerning income distribution, employment, education, social security, healthcare, and housing support in accordance with the principles of meeting basic needs, prioritizing key areas, improving institutions, and guiding expectations. Efforts have been focused on providing inclusive public services, meeting essential needs, and ensuring basic living standards, with progress made in providing equal access to basic public services.
We have worked to develop an income distribution system that emphasizes efficiency while promoting fairness. By adjusting excessive income, prohibiting illicit income, increasing the income of low-income groups, and steadily expanding the size of the middle-income group, we have promoted the formation of an olive-shaped pattern of distribution and ensured that personal incomes generally grow in step with economic growth and that rural income grows faster than urban income. We have implemented an employment-first policy and worked to achieve fuller and higher-quality employment.
We have worked to implement the Party’s education policy in full and given priority to educational development. We have made it clear that the fundamental task of education is to foster virtue and nurture a new generation of capable young people with the moral grounding, intellectual ability, physical vigor, aesthetic sensibility, and work skills needed to join and carry on the socialist cause. We have bolstered reform and innovation in education and teaching in order to promote fair and higher-quality education. We have worked to promote balanced development and urban-rural integration in compulsory education, make education and instruction in the standard spoken and written Chinese language available across the country, and keep off-campus tutoring well-regulated. We have taken active steps to develop vocational education and worked to bring out the full potential of higher education. Through these efforts, we have strived to develop a strong education system that the people are satisfied with.
To be Continued…